To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This study examined psychological constructs (delay discounting, grit, future time perspective and subjective social status) in relation to food security status and body weight.
A simultaneous triangulation mixed methods design was used to collect quantitative and qualitative data. Quantitative data were collected in fifty-six adults. Independent variables included food security status (food secure or food insecure) and BMI category (normal weight or overweight/obese). Participants, matched on race (African American and White), were categorised into four food security status by BMI category groups. Psychological constructs were measured via validated questionnaires. Qualitative data were collected in a subsample of twelve participants via in-depth interviews.
This study was conducted in Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
The sample was 66 % female and 48 % African American with a mean age of 32·3 (sd 9·2) years and BMI of 28·8 (sd 7·7) kg/m2.
Quantitative results showed that food-insecure participants with overweight/obesity had greater delay discounting (–3·78 v. –6·16, P = 0·01; –3·78 v. –5·75, P = 0·02) and poorer grit (3·37 v. 3·99, P = 0·02; 3·37 v. 4·02, P = 0·02 ) than their food-secure counterparts and food-insecure participants with normal weight. Food-insecure participants with overweight/obesity also had a shorter time period for financial planning (0·72 v. 4·14, P = 0·02) than food-secure participants with normal weight. Qualitative data largely supported quantitative findings with participants discussing varied perceptions of psychological constructs.
This study found differences in delaying gratification, grit and financial planning between food security status and body weight groups.
Chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) involves one-third of the US population, and prescription opioids contribute to the opioid epidemic. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention emphasizes maximizing non-opioid treatment, but many rural populations cannot access alternative therapies. Clinical and Translational Science Award hubs across four rural states performed a multi-site, single-arm intervention feasibility study testing methods and procedures of implementing a behavioral intervention, acceptance and commitment therapy, in primary care CNCP patients on chronic opioids. Using the CONSORT extension for feasibility studies, we describe lessons learned in recruiting/retaining participants, intervention implementation, data measurement, and multi-site procedures. Results inform a future definitive trial and potentially others conducting rural trials.
Background: Focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) are congenital structural abnormalities of the brain, and represent the most common cause of medication-resistant focal epilepsy in children and adults. Recent studies have shown that somatic mutations (i.e. mutations arising in the embryo) in mTOR pathway genes underlie some FCD cases. Specific therapies targeting the mTOR pathway are available. However, testing for somatic mTOR pathway mutations in FCD tissue is not performed on a clinical basis, and the contribution of such mutations to the pathogenesis of FCD remains unknown. Aim: To investigate the feasibility of screening for somatic mutations in resected FCD tissue and determine the proportion and spatial distribution of FCDs which are due to low-level somatic mTOR pathway mutations. Methods: We performed ultra-deep sequencing of 13 mTOR pathway genes using a custom HaloPlexHS target enrichment kit (Agilent Technologies) in 16 resected histologically-confirmed FCD specimens. Results: We identified causal variants in 62.5% (10/16) of patients at an alternate allele frequency of 0.75–33.7%. The spatial mutation frequency correlated with the FCD lesion’s size and severity. Conclusions: Screening FCD tissue using a custom panel results in a high yield, and should be considered clinically given the important potential implications regarding surgical resection, medical management and genetic counselling.
Background: Sotos syndrome is a genetic condition caused by NSD1 alterations, characterized by overgrowth, macrocephaly, dysmorphic features, and learning disability. Approximately half of children with Sotos syndrome develop seizures. We investigated the spectrum of seizure phenotypes in these patients. Methods: Patients were recruited from clinics and referral from support groups. Those withclinical or genetic diagnosis of Sotos syndrome and seizures were included. Phenotyping data was collected via structured clinical interview and medical chart review. Results: 25 patients with typical Sotos syndrome features were included. Of 14 tested patients, 64% (n=9) had NSD1 alterations. Most had developmental impairment (80%, n=20) and neuropsychiatric comorbidities (68%, n=17). Seizure onset was variable (2 months to 12 years). Febrile and absence seizures were the most frequent types (64%, n=16). Afebrile generalized tonicclonic (40%, n=10) and atonic (24%, n=6) seizures followed. Most patients (60%, n=15) had multiple seizure types. The majority (72%, n=18) was controlled on a single antiepileptic, or none; 4% (n=1) remained refractory to antiepileptics. Conclusions: The seizure phenotype in Sotos syndrome most commonly involves febrile convulsions or absence seizures. Afebrile tonic-clonic or atonic seizures may also occur. Seizures are typically well-controlled with antiepileptics. The rate of developmental impairment and neuropsychiatric comorbidities is high.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The current pilot study will use a mixed methods approach to investigate the role of psychological mechanisms in the relationship between food insecurity and obesity. We will be the first to assess 4 key psychological constructs (delay discounting, grit, future time perspective, and subjective social status) in a sample of food secure and food insecure adults with and without obesity. The specific aims are: (1) Examine associations among psychological mechanisms, food security status, and body mass index (BMI); and (2) Collect qualitative data on psychological mechanisms linking food insecurity and BMI. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This is a cross-sectional, observational pilot study that will be conducted in the local Baton Rouge community. The target study sample is 56 food secure and food insecure women and men aged 18–49 years with a BMI of 20.0 kg/m2 or greater. Independent (grouping) variables are food security status and BMI. Primary endpoints are 4 psychological constructs measured via questionnaires: (1) delay discounting, (2) grit, (3) future time perspective, and (4) subjective social status. We will also assess a number of key covariates, including health literacy, sociodemographics, food assistance use, and dietary quality. Semistructured, in-depth interviews will be conducted in a subsample of 12 participants. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: For quantitative data, we will test for significant associations between food insecurity, obesity, and selected psychological mechanisms via bivariate correlations and linear and logistic regression models. Qualitative data will be analyzed to identify key themes and concepts that conceptually link the aforementioned psychological mechanisms to food insecurity and obesity. Analyzed qualitative data will be triangulated with quantitative findings. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This pilot study will examine the role of psychological mechanisms in the relationship between food insecurity and obesity. Moreover, we are gathering data to identify potentially new intervention targets that will be used to develop intervention strategies aimed at reducing health disparities by effectively promoting weight management among low socioeconomic populations.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Emotional processing theory and some observations suggest that activation of subjective and physiological distress during therapeutic exposure and habituation across exposure sessions are key to improvement. This study sought to determine whether initial subjective and physiological activation and between-session habituation would predict PTSD symptom reduction after a series of written trauma narrative exposure sessions. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: In total, 29 urban-residing African-American participants with PTSD participated in four 30-minute writing sessions. Writing sessions 1 and 2 were 12 hours apart and session 3 and 4 were performed 1 week later, also 12 hours apart. PTSD symptoms were measured at baseline, after session 2, and 1 week after all 4 writing sessions with the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale. During each session, Subjective Units of Distress Scores (SUDS) were assessed 4 times and heart rate was measured continuously. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Participants exhibited PTSD symptom improvement and habituation of subjective distress, but not physiological arousal, across writing sessions. First session baseline-corrected SUDS maximum and SUDS decrease from the initial to the final writing session were both positively associated with symptom improvement. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Increased subjective, but not physiological, distress in the first exposure session and diminished subjective distress across sessions may be a helpful marker of emotional processing for clinicians and predictor of symptom improvement after written trauma narrative exposure.
We present results of modeling and experimental characterization of thermoelectric (TE) materials built on new fabrication principles, involving the coating of three-dimensionally structured quantum well super-lattice substrates with PbTe/PbSe. A new system for wafer-scale electrochemical deposition of such structures was specifically developed and will be described in this paper. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to measure film thickness and electron diffraction spectroscopy (EDS) was used to determine film material concentration. By adjusting deposition parameters, we were able to build stoichiometric PbSe, PbTe and stacked PbSe/PbTe super-lattice films on planar and pre-structured surfaces. The films were thermoelectrically modelled using COMSOL and then characterized using an infrared Seebeck effect measurement system which measured surface heating of the film while measuring the voltage associated with the temperature gradient. We report advances in the design and fabrication of TE materials which improve cost-effectiveness and TE efficiency.
In Epistulae ex Ponto 4.8, one of the last poems written from exile (dated to 15 or 16 c.e.), Ovid expresses his increasing hopes for Germanicus' assistance in effecting his recall to Rome. Though ostensibly addressed to his stepdaughter's father-in-law, P. Suillius Rufus, the poem contains a petition to Germanicus (27–88), as a poet to a poet, which promises future commemoration in Ovid's poetry if he is removed from Tomis:
clausaque si misero patria est, ut ponar in ullo,
qui minus Ausonia distet ab Vrbe loco,
unde tuas possim laudes celebrare recentes
magnaque quam minima facta referre mora. (85–8)
and if my country is closed against me in my misery, may I be placed in any place less distant from the Ausonian city, whence I might celebrate your praises while they are recent and relate your great deeds with the least delay.
The distribution and co-morbidity of common psychiatric disorders can be largely explained as manifestations of two broad psychopathological spectra of internalizing and externalizing disorders. Twin studies suggest that these spectra arise from genetic factors.
Structural equation twin modeling was applied to interview and questionnaire data on personality traits and lifetime psychiatric disorders on more than 5300 members of male–male (MM) and female–female (FF) twin pairs.
The best-fitting models for both the externalizing and internalizing spectra differed significantly in males and females. In males, the externalizing genetic common factor was best indexed by four disorders in the following order: antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), drug abuse/dependence (DAD), alcohol abuse dependence (AAD) and conduct disorder (CD). In females, the four disorders most closely related to the externalizing common factor were, in order: DAD, AAD, nicotine dependence (ND) and ASPD. Personality traits of novelty seeking (NS) and extraversion (E) better indexed the genetic externalizing spectrum in females than in males. In both males and females, major depression (MD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) best indexed the genetic internalizing common factor. Panic disorder (PD) and agoraphobia (AgP) better reflected the internalizing genetic common factor in women, and neuroticism (N) in men. Genetic correlations between the two spectra were estimated at + 0.53 in males and + 0.52 in females.
The disorders that optimally index the genetic liability to externalizing and internalizing disorders in the general population differ meaningfully in men and women. In both sexes, these genetic spectra are better assessed by psychiatric disorders than by personality traits.