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The hedonic pricing technique was used to measure that component of house price attributable to proximity to a city park, using data on sale prices and characteristics of houses in Worcester, MA. Aggregation of these residual values over all houses in the neighborhood of a park provided an estimate of the value of the park, to which was added an estimate of recreation benefits from extrazonal users. The policy question of park system development or contraction was addressed by comparing these benefits with operating costs to gain a net measure of parkland value.
There is considerable confusion concerning the species of Sarcocystis in South American camelids (SAC). Several species names have been used; however, proper descriptions are lacking. In the present paper, we redescribe the macroscopic sarcocyst forming Sarcocystis aucheniae and describe and propose a new name, Sarcocystis masoni for the microscopic sarcocyst forming species. Muscles samples were obtained from llamas (Lama glama) and guanacos (Lama guanicoe) from Argentina and from alpacas (Vicugna pacos) and llamas from Peru. Individual sarcocysts were processed by optical and electron microscopy, and molecular studies. Microscopic sarcocysts of S. masoni were up to 800 µm long and 35–95 µm wide, the sarcocyst wall was 2·5–3·5 µm thick, and had conical to cylindrical villar protrusions (vp) with several microtubules. Each vp had 11 or more rows of knob-like projections. Seven 18S rRNA gene sequences obtained from sarcocysts revealed 95–96% identity with other Sarcocystis spp. sequences reported in the GenBank. Sarcocysts of S. aucheniae were macroscopic, up to 1·2 cm long and surrounded by a dense and laminar 50 µm thick secondary cyst wall. The sarcocyst wall was up to 10 µm thick, and had branched vp, appearing like cauliflower. Comparison of the 11 sequences obtained from individual macroscopic cysts evidenced a 98–99% of sequence homology with other S. aucheniae sequences. In conclusion, 2 morphologically and molecularly different Sarcocystis species, S. masoni (microscopic cysts) and S. aucheniae (macroscopic cysts), were identified affecting different SAC from Argentina and Peru.
Understanding of biological impact of proteome profile on meat quality is vital for developing different approaches to improve meat quality. Present study was conducted to unravel the differences in biochemical, ultrastructural and proteome profile of longissimus dorsi muscle between buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) of different age groups (young v. old). Higher (P<0.05) myofibrillar and total protein extractability, muscle fibre diameter, and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values was observed in old buffalo meat relative to meat from young buffaloes. Scanning electron microscopy photographs revealed reduced fibre size with increased inter-myofibrillar space in young compared with old buffalo meat. Transmission electron microscopy results revealed longer sarcomeres in young buffalo meat relative to meat from old buffaloes. Proteomic characterization using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) found 93 differentially expressed proteins between old and young buffalo meat. Proteome analysis using 2DE revealed 191 and 95 differentially expressed protein spots after 6 days of ageing in young and old buffalo meat, respectively. The matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of flight/time-of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) analysis of selected gel spots helped in identifying molecular markers of tenderness mainly consisting of structural proteins. Protein biomarkers identified in the present study have the potential to differentiate meat from young and old buffaloes and pave the way for optimizing strategies for improved buffalo meat quality.
Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. is an important fruit crop of the Thar Desert of India. About 330 accessions and cultivars collected from various parts of India are currently being maintained at a farm in the Central Institute for Arid Horticulture. Utilization of such a large collection of germplasm for breeding and crop improvement is difficult. Therefore, in the present study, using a heuristic approach based on phenotypic characters, we identified 52 accessions that represented a core collection, with a coverage of 100% and a coincidence rate of 98.1%. No significant difference was observed with respect to either the Shannon–Weaver or the Nei diversity index for qualitative traits, mean values and ranges for quantitative traits or clustering patterns between the core and whole collections. The core collection represents the entire range of diversity with minimum redundancy and should be useful for the conservation and utilization of Z. mauritiana germplasm.
Developing world disaster Health research - Present Evidence & future priorities
Considering that 85% of disasters and 95% of disaster-related deaths occur in the developing world, the overwhelming number of casualties has contributed insignificantly to the world's peer-reviewed literature. The existing & available evidence on disasters in peer-reviewed journals about the developing world, was examined for quality and quantity in this systematic review.
The free PubMed database was searched using the MeSH (Medical Subject Heading) terms ‘disasters’, ‘disaster medicine, ‘rescue work’, ‘relief work’ and ‘conflict’ and then refined using the MeSH terms ‘developing country’. The final list of selected manuscripts were analyzed by type of article, level of evidence, theme of the manuscript and topic, author affiliation & region of the study.
Citations using MeSH search terms ‘disasters’, ‘disaster medicine, ‘rescue work’, ‘relief work’ & ‘conflict’ yielded 63,196 results. After these results were refined using the second MeSH term “developing country”, 438 articles were retained. Less than 1% (0.69%) citations in PubMed dealt with developing country disasters. Half of the manuscripts (46.5%) were found to be original research articles (36.1%) or reviews (10.4%), while more than a quarter (29.5%) were commentaries. 97.4% (149/153) of all ‘original research articles’ were Level IV or V evidence. A fifth (20.3%) of the authors of all manuscripts on developing world disasters were from the developing world (82/404); Predominant themes (29.1%) were missions, healthcare provision and humanitarian aid during the acute phase of developing world disasters.
Less than 1% of all disaster-related publications are about developing world disasters. Also, the developed world, authors four-fifths of the articles about developing world disasters, and contributes the predominant perspective. Aid for sustaining long-term disaster research may be a more useful investment in mitigating future disasters, than short-term humanitarian aid missions to the developing world.
Damage in single crystal ß-SiC(100) as a result of ion bombardment has been studied using Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and cross-section transmission electron microscopy (X-TEM). Samples were implanted with 123 keV 27Al at liquid nitrogen temperature. RBS spectra for He channeling in the (110) axis at 45° were obtained as a function of implantation dose to determine damage accumulation. X-TEM was used to characterize damage structure for selected doses. The surface of the SiC becomes amorphous for doses greater than 1 x 1015 /cm 2. At lower doses, significant uniaxial lattice strain along the (100) direction is suggested by comparison of RBS channeling spectra obtained for several high index axes. High resolution TEM on a sample implanted at 4 x 1014 /cm2 shows no damage structure in the surface region; lattice damage in a broad layer centered roughly at the depth of highest energy deposition is characterized by small amorphous pockets in a crystalline matrix. Qualitatively similar backscattering results were obtained for other elements implanted at room and liquid nitrogen temperature.
Pulsed laser annealing and ion beam mixing have been used as surface modification techniques to enhance the physical properties of polycrystalline α-SiC. Thin Ni overlayers (20 nm - 100 nm) were evaporated onto the SiC surface. The specimens were subsequently irradiated with pulses of a ruby or krypton fluoride (KrF) excimer laser or bombarded with high energy Xe+ or Si+ ions. Both processes are non-equilibrium methods and each has been shown to induce unique microstructural changes at the SiC surface which are not attainable by conventional thermal treatments. Under particular (and optimum) processing conditions, these changes considerably increased the mechanical properties of the SiC; following laser irradiation, the fracture strength of the SiC was increased by as much as 50%, but after ion beam mixing, no strength increase was observed.
High resolution cross-section transmission electron microscopy (X-TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Rutherford backscattering techniques were used to characterize the extent of mixing between the Ni and the SiC as a result of the surface modification.
Thin films of β SiC have been grown epitaxically onto on axis (0001) 6H α SiC substrates using ion beam deposition. The ion beam deposition technique involves the direct deposition of alternating layers of 13C+ and 30Si+. The carbon and silicon ions were obtained from an ion implanter by decelerating mass analyzed ion beams to 40 eV. The SiC substrate was held at ∼973 K. Thin films of α-SiC (a mixture of α- polytypes) were obtained following deposition onto off axis (∼2°) 6H α-SiC. High resolution electron microscopy and Rutherford backscattering techniques were used to determine the structure and crystalline perfection of the resulting layers.
Chemical vapor deposition has been utilized to produce ternary, multiphase coatings of various compositions of silicon carbide (SiC) with Ti, Cr, and Mo. Thermodynamic calculations have been performed for a variety of experimental conditions in each system. Scanning, transmission and analytical electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques have been used to characterize the microstructures and to determine compositions.
A process for the preparation of fiber-reinforced SiC composites by chemical vapor deposition has been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Composites are prepared by infiltrating fibrous preforms with reactant gases that decompose at elevated temperatures to deposit silicon carbide between and around the fibers. Because the infiltration process utilizes both temperature and pressure gradients, SiC is deposited under conditions that vary considerably from the hot face to the cool face of the composite. Matrix characterization of composite samples by transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy are described.
Composite coatings consisting of discrete phases of TiN and MoS2 were codeposited on graphite substrates from Ti((CH3)2N)4/NH3/MoF6/H2S gas mixtures in a cold-wall reactor at 1073 K and 1.3 kPa. Chemical composition and microstructure of the coatings were characterized by Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. Kinetic friction coefficients of the coatings were determined by a computer-controlled friction microprobe and values less than 0.2 were obtained with a type-440C stainless-steel counterface under ambient condition.