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Disorders of voice can limit an individual's participation and impair social interaction, thus affecting overall quality of life. Perceptual and objective evaluations can provide the clinician with detailed information regarding voice disorders.
This study comprised 40 subjects aged 34–46 years, 20 of whom (10 male, 10 female) had unilateral vocal fold palsy. Data were obtained for all participants from: the Voice Handicap Index, the grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia and strain (‘GRBAS’) scale, acoustic voice analysis, electroglottography, and voice range profiles.
The voice evaluations revealed statistically significant (p < 0.05) differences between the controls and study group, both in males and females, pre- and post-therapy.
Despite the normalisation of vocal parameters, acoustic, perceptual and self-rated assessments revealed statistically significant differences after therapy. Hence, acoustic measures, namely electroglottographic perturbation, and voice frequency and intensity range, are recommended prior to termination of therapy.
The present work describes a unique planar low-profile wideband circularly polarized Multiple-Input and Multiple-Output (MIMO) antenna operating in the X-band, with pattern and polarization diversity over the entire axial-ratio bandwidth (ARBW). The design is unique in the sense that a simple grounded stub introduced between two linearly polarized monopole antennas has been used to realize wideband circular polarization, pattern diversity, and high isolation between antennas. The ARBW of the MIMO antenna is 2.45 GHz (8.11–10.56) 3 dB and its impedance matching bandwidth is 3.52 GHz (8.07–11.59). The isolation is better than 20 dB. The antenna can be easily adapted to operate other frequency bands by simple frequency scaling. It has been fabricated on an FR-4 substrate and its performance has been compared against several existing available antennas.
Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are well known for biomedical applications. The particle size, morphology, surface area, and functionalization are the key parameters that affect their bioactivity properties. Inline to this, the superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles were prepared via chemical coprecipitation method with an average particle size of 6 ± 3 nm. The particles were surface-functionalized with chitosan and in-house prepared reduced graphene oxide (rGO) to obtain chitosan-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles (C-Fe3O4) and rGO-Fe3O4 nanocomposites (G-Fe3O4), respectively. Upon functionalization, the physicochemical properties of the materials were characterized thoroughly using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer, Raman Spectroscopy, and thermal gravimetric analysis. Furthermore, they have subjected to cytotoxicity assay, agar two-fold broth dilution test, and disc diffusion assay experiments for the determination of cytotoxicity and antibacterial activities. The effect of surface functionalization on their bioactivity was investigated thoroughly. The surface functionalization with chitosan and rGO has enhanced the bioactivity of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles.
In this paper, longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic characterisation of the Cropped Delta Reflex Wing (CDRW) configuration–based unmanned aerial vehicle is carried out by means of full-scale static wind-tunnel tests followed by full-scale flight testing. A predecided set of longitudinal and lateral/directional manoeuvres is performed to acquire the respective flight data, using a dedicated onboard flight data acquisition system. The compatibility of the acquired dynamics is quantified, in terms of scale factors and biases of the measured variables, using Kinematic consistency check. Maximum likelihood (ML), least squares and newly emerging neural Gauss–Newton (NGN) methods were implemented for a wing-alone delta configuration, mainly to capture the dynamic derivatives for both longitudinal and lateral directional cases. Estimated damping and weak dynamic derivatives, which are in general challenging to capture for a wing alone configuration, are consistent using ML and NGN methods. Validation of the estimated parameters with aerodynamic model is performed by proof-of-match exercise and are presented therein.
We develop an integrative perspective on the role of coethnic ties and ties with foreign multinational enterprises (MNEs) – normally studied in isolation of each other – on the perceived legitimacy of international new ventures (INVs) from emerging economies. Building on the notions of people (interpersonal diaspora ties) and pipelines (interorganizational MNE ties) in Lorenzen and Mudambi's connectivity theory of clusters, we argue that these could contribute to the focal INV's internal and external legitimacy, respectively, as it seeks to upgrade its capabilities. We go a step further by highlighting people within pipelines – coethnic managers working in foreign MNEs – as a potentially important catalyst of the focal INV's cross-border legitimacy. Using an illustration of an INV from Bangalore, we note that India offers a fruitful setting – and one that is distinct from China – for future INV research into the role of people, pipelines and, in particular, people within pipelines.
GaN films have been grown on SiC substrates with an AlN nucleation layer by using a metal organic chemical vapor deposition technique. Micro-cracking of the GaN films has been observed in some of the grown samples. In order to investigate the micro-cracking and microstructure, the samples have been studied using various characterization techniques such as optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The surface morphology of the AlN nucleation layer is related to the stress evolution in subsequent overgrown GaN epilayers. It is determined via TEM evidence that, if the AlN nucleation layer has a rough surface morphology, this leads to tensile stresses in the GaN films, which finally results in cracking. Raman spectroscopy results also suggest this, by showing the existence of considerable tensile residual stress in the AlN nucleation layer. Based on these various observations and results, conclusions or propositions relating to the microstructure are presented.
In this work, a new compact, low profile, frequency, and end-fire pattern reconfigurable antenna is presented. The proposed antenna consists of four parasitic elements and an electric-inductive-capacitive (ELC) resonator enclosed with a closed ring resonator (CRR). The reconfigurability in the proposed antenna is achieved with the help of five PIN diodes (D1–D5) embedded on the top surface of the substrate. The diode (D1) is implanted between ELC and CRR resonators for frequency reconfigurability. The other four diodes (D2–D5) are implanted between the ground plane and four parasitic elements to control the electrical length of the ground plane to achieve pattern diversity. The ground plane and parasitic elements steer the primary omni-directional beam to bi-directional and uni-directional end-fire radiation at multiple frequencies. The proposed antenna exhibits multiband operation and end-fire pattern diversity depending upon the different states of PIN diodes. The overall size of the proposed antenna is 0.20λ0× 0.17λ0× 0.009λ0, where λ0 is calculated at the lowest resonance frequency. The impedance bandwidth of the antenna ranges from 1.45 to 26.22%, while peak gain varies from 0.86 to 3.86 dBi depending upon the state of operation. The measured results are in agreement with the simulated results, which confirm the frequency and pattern diversity performance of the antenna. The proposed antenna can be used in back-to-back repeater systems.
At GE Research, we are combining “physics” with artificial intelligence and machine learning to advance manufacturing design, processing, and inspection, turning innovative technologies into real products and solutions across our industrial portfolio. This article provides a snapshot of how this physical plus digital transformation is evolving at GE.
This study examined the pattern of economic disparity in the modern contraceptive prevalence rate (mCPR) among women receiving contraceptives from the public and private health sectors in India, using data from all four rounds of the National Family Health Survey conducted between 1992–93 and 2015–16. The mCPR was measured for currently married women aged 15–49 years. A concentration index was calculated and a pooled binary logistic regression analysis conducted to assess economic disparity (by household wealth quintiles) in modern contraceptive use between the public and private health sectors. The analyses were stratified by rural–urban place of residence. The results indicated that mCPR had increased in India over time. However, in 2015–16 only half of women – 48% (33% from the public sector, 12% from the private sector, 3% from other sources) – were using any modern contraceptive in India. Over time, the economic disparity in modern contraceptive use reduced across both public and private health sectors. However, the extent of the disparity was greater when women obtained the services from the private sector: the value of the concentration index for mCPR was 0.429 when obtained from the private sector and 0.133 when from the public sector in 2015–16. Multivariate analysis confirmed a similar pattern of the economic disparity across public and private sectors. Economic disparity in the mCPR has reduced considerably in India. While the economic disparity in 2015–16 was minimal among those accessing contraceptives from the public sector, it continued to exist among those receiving services from the private sector. While taking appropriate steps to plan and monitor private sector services for family planning, continued and increased engagement of public providers in the family planning programme in India is required to further reduce the economic disparity among those accessing contraceptive services from the private sector.
The intensity of turbidite sedimentation over long timescales is driven by sea-level change, tectonically driven rock uplift and climatically modulated sediment delivery rates. This study focuses on understanding the effect of sea-level fluctuations and climatic variability on grain-size variations. The grain size and environmental magnetic parameters of Arabian Sea sediments have been documented using 203 samples, spanning the last 200 ka, obtained from International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Site U1457. Grain-size end-member modelling suggests that between ~200 and 130 ka there was an increase in the coarse silt fraction caused by sediment transport following reworking of the Indus Fan and development of deep-sea canyons. The sediment size and enhanced magnetic susceptibility indicate a dominant flux of terrestrial sediments. Sedimentation in the distal Indus Fan at c. 200–130 ka was driven by a drop in sea level that lowered the base level in the Indus and Narmada river systems. The low sea-stand caused incision in the Indus delta, canyons and fan area, which resulted in the transportation of coarser sediment at the drilling site. Magnetic susceptibility and other associated magnetic parameters suggest a large fraction of the sediment was supplied by the Narmada River during ~200–130 ka. Since ~130 ka, clay-dominated sedimentation is attributed to the rise in sea level due to warm and wet climate.
Introduction: Abdominal pain is one of the most frequent reasons for an emergency department (ED) visit. Most cases are functional and no therapy has proven effective. Our objective was to determine if hyoscine butylbromide (HBB) (BuscopanTM) is effective for children who present to the ED with functional abdominal pain. Methods: We conducted a randomized, blinded, superiority trial comparing HBB 10 mg plus acetaminophen placebo to oral acetaminophen 15 mg/kg (max 975 mg) plus HBB placebo using a double-dummy approach. We included children 8-17 years presenting to the ED at London Health Sciences Centre with colicky abdominal pain rated >40 mm on a 100 mm visual analog scale (VAS). The primary outcome was VAS pain score at 80 minutes post-administration. Secondary outcomes included adverse effects; caregiver satisfaction with pain management using a five-item Likert scale; recidivism and missed surgical diagnoses within 24-hours of discharge. Analysis was based on intention to treat. Results: We analyzed 225 participants (112 acetaminophen; 113 HBB). The mean (SD) age was 12.4 (3.0) years and 148/225 (65.8%) were females. Prior to enrollment, the median (IQR) duration of pain prior was 2 (4.5) hours and analgesia was provided to 101/225 (44.9%) of participants. The mean (SD) pre-intervention pain scores in the acetaminophen and HBB groups were 62.7 (15.9) mm and 60.3 (17.3) mm, respectively. At 80 minutes, the mean (SD) pain scores in the acetaminophen and HBB groups were 30.1 (28.8) mm and 29.4 (26.4) mm, respectively and there were no significant differences adjusting for pre-intervention scores (p = 0.96). The median (IQR) caregiver satisfaction was high in the acetaminophen [5 (2)] and HBB [5 (1)] groups (p = 0.79). The median (IQR) length of stay between acetaminophen [235 (101)] and HBB [234 (103)] was not significantly different (p = 0.53). The proportion of participants with a return visit for abdominal pain was 4/112 (3.5%) in the acetaminophen group and 6/113 (5.3%) in the HBB group. The most common adverse effect was nausea (9% in each group) and there were no significant differences in adverse effects between acetaminophen (26/112, 23.2%) and HBB (31/113, 27.4%) (p = 0.52). There were no missed surgical diagnoses. Conclusion: For children with presumed functional abdominal pain who present to the ED, both acetaminophen and HBB produce a clinically important (VAS < 30 mm) reduction in pain and should be routinely considered in this clinical setting.
We report evolution of the surface and wetting behavior of Barium fluoride (BaF2) thin films under the effect of swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation at different fluences. The analogy of this study may be used may be used for the development of dust resistant fabric technology for rural area. The ion irradiation has been performed at normal incidence on the films with Au ions having 100 MeV energy. Further, the wettability of irradiated surfaces is studied through contact angle of water droplet. The value of contact angle of droplet changes with irradiation, it increases from 111° to 123° with the increase in fluence from 5×1011 to 1×1013 ions/cm2. The mechanism of wettability of BaF2 is explained on the basis of increase in contact area of water droplet with surface. SHI irradiation deposits a huge amount of energy in materials due to extreme electronic excitation and it causes a large increase in the temperature of material around the ion track. Ion beam irradiation leads to the large ejection of atoms from the surface which is one of the major factors in increasing the roughness of the surface and thus for the change in contact angle.
A cross-sectional study on six dairy farms was conducted to ascertain the occurrence of carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli in calves. Two-hundred and seventy-nine isolates of E. coli were recovered from 90 faecal samples from apparently healthy (45) and diarrhoeal (45) calves. The isolates were screened for phenotypic susceptibility to carbapenems and production of metallo β-lactamase, as well as five carbapenemase resistance genes by PCR, and overexpression of efflux pumps. Eighty-one isolates (29.03%) were resistant to at least one of three carbapenem antibiotics [meropenem (23.30%), imipenem (2.15%) and ertapenem (1.43%)], and one isolate was positive for the blaVIM gene which was located on an Incl1 plasmid of a novel sequence type (ST 297) by multilocus sequence typing. The majority (83.95%) of isolates had an active efflux pump. Calves housed on concrete floors were approximately seven times more likely to acquire meropenem-resistant isolates than those housed on earthen floors (95% CI 1.27–41.54). In India, carbapenem drugs are not used in food animal treatment, hence carbapenem-resistant strains in calves possibly originate from the natural environment or human contact and is of public health importance. To our knowledge, this is the first report of blaVIM carbapenemases gene in calves from India.
Nano-patterned surfaces have potential applications in the development of efficient solar cells through multiple internal reflections and may be used to fulfil the energy demand of rural India. Therefore, the basic understanding of growth mechanism of patterns under ion irradiation is much required. Here, the ripple patterns are grown on Si (100) surfaces for two specific ion irradiation conditions. First, the two set of samples (namely set-A and set-B) of Si (100) are irradiated by 50 keVAr+ ion beam at oblique (60°) and normal incidence, respectively, using ion fluence of 5×1016 ions/ cm2. The aim of this first stage irradiation at two different angles is the creation of different depth locations of amorphous/crystalline (a/c) interface while keeping the free surface similar in surface features, which is a crucial parameter in surface growth. Further, the sequential second stage irradiation is carried out at 60° for the same energy of Ar beam for the fluences 3×1017 to 9×1017 ions/cm2 to see the evolution of ripple patterns. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) study shows that the ripple pattern ordering is better in set-A rather than set-B. Lateral correlation length of each ripple structure surface is computed by autocorrelation function while roughness exponent is measured with height-height correlation function. Fractals behaviors of patterned on Si (100) surface are found to be sensitive to the two stage irradiation approach. The understanding of the mechanism of nano-patterns formation may be useful to develop efficient solar systems for the needs of energy in rural India.
The effect of sample granularity on diffracted x-ray intensity was evaluated by measuring the 2θ dependence of x-ray fluorescence from various samples. Measurements were made in the symmetric geometry on samples ranging from single crystals to highly absorbing coarse powders. A characteristic shape for the absorption correction was observed. A demonstration of the sensitivity of Rietveld refined site occupation parameters is made on CuAu and Cu50Au44Ni6 alloys refined with and without granularity corrections. These alloys provide a good example of the effect of granularity due to their large linear x-ray absorption coefficients. Sample granularity and refined thermal parameters obtained from the Rietveld analysis were found to be correlated. Without a granularity correction, the refined thermal parameters are too low and can actually become negative in an attempt to compensate for granularity, A general shape for granularity correction can be included in refinement procedures. If no granularity correction is included, data should be restricted to above 30° 2θ, and thermal parameters should be ignored unless extreme precautions are taken to produce <5 (μm particles and high packing densities.
A novel series of nanocrystalline AlCuCrFeMnWx (x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5) high-entropy alloys (HEAs) were synthesized by mechanical alloying followed by spark plasma sintering. The phase evolution of the current HEAs was studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy, and selected area electron diffraction. The XRD of the AlCuCrFeMn sintered HEA shows evolution of ordered B2 phase (AlFe type), sigma phase (Cr rich), and FeMn phase. AlCuCrFeMnWx (x = 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 mol) shows formation of ordered B2 phases, sigma phases, FeMn phases, and BCC phases. Micro-hardness of the AlCuCrFeMnWx samples was measured by Vickers microindentation and the maximum value observed is 780 ± 12 HV. As the tungsten content increases, the fracture strength under compression increases from 1010 to 1510 MPa. Thermodynamic parameters of present alloys confirm the crystalline phase formation, and finally structure–property relationship was proposed by conventional strengthening mechanisms.