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Eustachian tube dysfunction is a poorly defined condition associated with various symptoms and it can predispose to middle-ear disease. Balloon dilation Eustachian tuboplasty has been proposed as a treatment for Eustachian tube dysfunction.
To evaluate the subjective and objective outcomes of balloon dilation Eustachian tuboplasty in patients with recurrent, previously treated chronic Eustachian tube dysfunction.
The study was conducted on 11 patients (13 ears) who had undergone previous unsuccessful medical and surgical treatment. Tympanometry was the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcome measures included pure tone audiogram assessment and seven-item Eustachian Tube Dysfunction Questionnaire score.
Balloon dilation Eustachian tuboplasty resulted in significant improvements in 11 patients’ subjective but not objective outcome measures.
The objective abnormality and subjective symptoms in Eustachian tube dysfunction may represent two distinct pathological processes, which may nevertheless influence and exacerbate each other.
A patients with undiagnosed type II diabetes mellitus presented with infective rhinocerebral mucormycosis.
Initial magnetic resonance imaging scans demonstrated an aggressive disease process involving the left orbit and paranasal sinuses. A repeated scan following treatment excluded intracranial spread or recurrence. Pus from the paranasal sinuses grew Rhizopus arrhizus on microbiological culture.
Initial treatment comprised intravenous liposomal amphotericin B, intravenous co-amoxiclav and surgical debridement. The patient's diabetes was managed medically. The development of drug-induced transaminitis required a change of medication. The dose of liposomal amphotericin B was reduced, and then titrated back up as the liver function test results improved. Posaconazole was also introduced and the patient was eventually discharged on this alone, as the maximum recommended cumulative dose of liposomal amphotericin B had been reached.
Posaconazole may be used effectively in conjunction with surgical debridement in the treatment of patients with infective rhinocerebral mucormycosis who develop hepatotoxic side effects to liposomal amphotericin B. Posaconazole may also allow a reduction in the dose of liposomal amphotericin B, resulting in better tolerance.
An unusual clivus mass is reported, following investigation of memory disturbance and headaches in a patient with β thalassaemia and sickle cell disease. This lesion proved to be a site of extramedullary haematopoiesis.
Computed tomography demonstrated a 2 cm mass at the base of the sphenoid. However, magnetic resonance imaging showed little bony expansion, and the differential diagnosis included chordoma, dermoid cyst and fibrodysplasia.
Examination of the biopsy showed the presence of bone marrow demonstrating erythroid hyperplasia and small aggregates of B-cell lymphocytes. The features were considered compatible with erythroid hyperplasia associated with haemolytic anaemia.
The patient was reassured that she did not have a neoplastic lesion, and was referred back to the haematologists for further management of her sickling β thalassaemia.
Extramedullary haematopoiesis occurs outside the reticuloendothelial system in response to haemolytic anaemia. Extramedullary haematopoiesis causing a clivus mass is an unusual ENT presentation. Such haematopoiesis is occasionally seen in the calvarial skull, but this is the first report of this process occurring in the anterior skull base, to our knowledge.
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