To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Essential tremor (ET) is associated with psychological difficulties, including anxiety and depression. Demoralization (feelings of helplessness, hopelessness, inability to cope), another manifestation of psychological distress, has yet to be investigated in ET. Our objectives are to (1) estimate the prevalence of demoralization in ET, (2) assess its clinical correlates, and (3) determine whether demoralization correlates with tremor severity.
We administered the Kissane Demoralization Scale (KDS-II) and several psychosocial evaluations (ie, scales assessing subjective incompetence, resilience, and depression [eg, Geriatric Depression Scale]) to 60 ET subjects. Tremor was assessed with a disability score and total tremor score. KDS-II >8 indicated demoralization.
Among 60 ET subjects (mean age = 70.2 ± 6.8 years), the prevalence of demoralization was 13.3%, 95% confidence interval = 6.9–24.2%. Although there was overlap between demoralization and depression (10% of the sample meeting criteria for both), 54% of depressed subjects were not demoralized, and 25% of demoralized subjects were not depressed. Demoralization correlated with psychological factors, but demoralized subjects did not have significantly higher total tremor scores, tremor disability scores, or years with tremor.
Demoralization has a prevalence of 13.3% in ET, similar to that in other chronic or terminal illnesses (eg, cancer 13–18%, Parkinson’s disease 18.1%, coronary heart disease 20%). Demoralization was not a function of increased tremor severity, suggesting that it is a separable construct, which could dictate how a patient copes with his/her disease. These data further our understanding of the psychological and psychosocial correlates of ET.
We summarise the first year of operation of the Medium Deep Survey - a key project of the HST. Two fields in the LMC are discussed and some preliminary scientific results presented. We also comment on image deconvolution for the extragalactic fields observed as part of the Medium Deep Survey.
With HST and WFPC2, galaxies in the Medium Deep Survey can be reliably classified to magnitudes I814 ≲ 22.0 in the F814W band, at a mean redshift . The main result is the relatively high proportion (~40%) of objects which are in some way irregular or anomalous, and which are of relevance in understanding the origin of the familiar excess population of faint galaxies. These diverse objects include compact galaxies, apparently interacting pairs, galaxies with superluminous starforming regions and diffuse low surface brightness galaxies of various forms. The ‘irregulars’ and ‘peculiar’ galaxies contribute most of the excess counts in the I-band at our limiting magnitude, and may explain the ‘faint blue galaxy’ problem.
Prostate cancer is the most common non-cutaneous cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality among men in the USA. Growing evidence suggests that oxidative stress is involved in the development and progression of prostate cancer. In this study, the association between antioxidants from diet and supplements and biomarkers of oxidative stress in blood (n 278), urine (n 298) and prostate tissue (n 55) were determined among men from the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project. The association between antioxidant intake and oxidative stress biomarkers in blood and urine was determined using linear regression, adjusting for age, race, prostate cancer aggressiveness and smoking status. Greater antioxidant intake was found to be associated with lower urinary 8-isoprostane concentrations, with a 10 % increase in antioxidant intake corresponding to an unadjusted 1·1 % decrease in urinary 8-isoprostane levels (95 % CI −1·7, −0·3 %; P value<0·01) and an adjusted 0·6 % decrease (95 % CI −1·4, 0·2 %; P value=0·16). In benign prostate tissue, thioredoxin 1 was inversely associated with antioxidant intake (P=0·02). No significant associations were found for other blood or urinary biomarkers or for malignant prostate tissue. These results indicate that antioxidant intake may be associated with less oxidative stress among men diagnosed with prostate cancer.
Panendoscopy is routinely used for the identification of occult second primary tumours in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. However, its role in low risk subgroups, particularly non-smoking, non-drinking patients and patients presenting with early stage oral cavity lesions, is debatable.
The records of 112 patients with T1 or T2 oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic, disease characteristics and survival data were collected.
Average follow-up duration was 71.7 months (range, 3.6–238.3 months). Thirty-five patients died within this period. Thirteen second primary events were identified in 11 patients, with all but 2 tumours in the oral cavity or oropharynx. There was a single synchronous primary – a lung adenocarcinoma; all other events were metachronous. No non-smoking, non-drinking patients re-presented with a second primary tumour; tobacco and alcohol use are clearly risk factors for development of a second primary tumour.
The role of panendoscopy for identifying synchronous primary tumours in patients with early stage oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma should be re-evaluated, particularly in non-smoking, non-drinking patients who are at low risk of second primary development. Close follow up with regular clinical examination including flexible fibre-optic endoscopy may be sufficient in this subgroup.
Privacy is an important value which is internationally recognised as worthy of protection. However, it has been under constant challenge for a number of reasons including changes in technology which facilitate informational and other forms of surveillance and privacy-invasive media practices. Because of its multi-faceted nature, privacy is typically regulated by a variety of different means. Data protection laws seek to ensure the fair handling of personal information. Criminal sanctions are used to outlaw more serious invasions of privacy, including certain breaches of communications privacy and uses of surveillance devices. Assorted civil actions are relied on to protect broader interests in privacy. However, the piecemeal nature of privacy protection is often found to be inadequate and victims frequently lack appropriate remedies. Therefore, many common law countries either provide for or are actively considering the introduction of civil remedies to specifically address general privacy issues. There has also been active consideration of measures to regulate media organisations, especially in the light of the Murdoch scandal in the United Kingdom. The inadequacies in the law have prompted calls for law reform in Hong Kong, and recommendations have been made in the report on Civil Liability for Invasion of Privacy (2004). It examined the need of individuals to be able to seek civil remedies for unwarranted invasion of privacy. In it the Law Reform Commission of Hong Kong (HKLRC) proposed the introduction of specific statutory torts of privacy to cover acts and conduct frustrating the reasonable expectation of an individual’s privacy. It proposed that a person, who invaded another’s privacy by intruding upon their solitude or seclusion, or by intruding into their private affairs or concerns, should be liable in tort. It also recommended another tort for invasion of privacy arising out of public disclosure of private facts. This article focuses on the issue of civil liability and analyses the inadequacies of existing laws and regulatory regimes and attempts to come up with a model that is most suitable for Hong Kong. It takes the HKLRC’s recommendations as its starting point but refines and modifies them, drawing on the insights that have since become available from the work of other law reform bodies and further developments in overseas case law.
To validate an FFQ to assess antioxidant intake in overweight postmenopausal women.
A seventy-four-item antioxidant 1-month FFQ was developed based on major antioxidant sources in the American diet. Forty overweight postmenopausal women participated in a 9-month observational study and completed four sets of FFQ and 7 d food record (7dFR) every 3 months. Twelve-hour fasting blood was collected for plasma antioxidant measurement at the first visit.
Forty overweight postmenopausal women.
Spearman correlation coefficients of 1-month antioxidant intake estimated from the first set of FFQ and 7dFR ranged from 0·34 to 0·87, except for γ-tocopherol. The proportion of participants categorized into the extremely opposite tertiles averaged 7 %. Significant correlations were observed for diet–plasma vitamin C, α-tocopherol and carotenoids (P < 0·05). No time effect was observed on the dietary antioxidant intakes estimated from four 7dFR and four FFQ. Dietary antioxidants estimated from averaged four 7dFR showed moderate to high correlation with those estimated from averaged four FFQ and from each FFQ collected every 3 months. Bland–Altman plots did not show any systematic bias. Averaged misclassifications were below 10 % between these two instruments.
These findings attested a reasonable validity and a good acceptance of this 1-month FFQ in assessing both short-term and long-term diverse antioxidant intakes in these overweight postmenopausal women. The use of this FFQ in associating antioxidant intake with disease risk needs further investigation.
A survey of the Milky Way disk and the Magellanic System at the wavelengths of the 21-cm atomic hydrogen (H i) line and three 18-cm lines of the OH molecule will be carried out with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. The survey will study the distribution of H i emission and absorption with unprecedented angular and velocity resolution, as well as molecular line thermal emission, absorption, and maser lines. The area to be covered includes the Galactic plane (|b| < 10°) at all declinations south of δ = +40°, spanning longitudes 167° through 360°to 79° at b = 0°, plus the entire area of the Magellanic Stream and Clouds, a total of 13 020 deg2. The brightness temperature sensitivity will be very good, typically σT≃ 1 K at resolution 30 arcsec and 1 km s−1. The survey has a wide spectrum of scientific goals, from studies of galaxy evolution to star formation, with particular contributions to understanding stellar wind kinematics, the thermal phases of the interstellar medium, the interaction between gas in the disk and halo, and the dynamical and thermal states of gas at various positions along the Magellanic Stream.
To validate a brief FFQ developed for capturing short-term antioxidant intake in a sample of US college students.
A seventy-four-item antioxidant FFQ was developed based on major antioxidant sources in the American diet. The FFQ was validated against 30 d food records (FR) and plasma antioxidant concentrations. The reliability of the FFQ was evaluated by two FFQ administered at a 1-month interval.
University of Connecticut, CT, USA.
Sixty healthy college students.
Estimates of dietary antioxidants from the FFQ were moderately to highly correlated with those estimated from the 30 d FR (r = 0·29–0·80; P < 0·05) except for γ-tocopherol and β-cryptoxanthin. Total antioxidant capacity from diet only or from diet and supplements estimated by the 30 d FR and FFQ were highly correlated (r = 0·67 and 0·71, respectively; P < 0·0001). The FFQ categorized 91 % of participants into the same or adjacent tertiles of antioxidant intake as the 30 d FR. Most dietary carotenoids estimated from the FFQ were correlated with plasma levels (P < 0·05). Correlation coefficients for test–retest reliability ranged from 0·39 to 0·86. More than 94 % of the participants were classified in the same or adjacent tertiles between the two administrations of the FFQ.
The brief FFQ demonstrated reasonable validity for capturing a comprehensive antioxidant intake profile. This FFQ is applicable in epidemiological or clinical studies to capture short-term antioxidant intake or to simply document the variations of antioxidant intake in intervention trials. Cross-validation studies are warranted in other target populations.
Predicting which chronic rhinosinusitis patients have nasal obstruction due to reversible mucosal inflammation could prevent unnecessary surgery.
To investigate whether the change in nasal peak inspiratory flow following maximal decongestion (i.e. mucosal reversibility) at first visit predicts the response to topical steroids in chronic rhinosinusitis patients, as measured by the 22-item Sinonasal Outcome Test.
Prospective study of 128 consecutive new adult patients presenting with nasal obstruction due to chronic rhinosinusitis (January 2008 to July 2010). The 22-item Sinonasal Outcome Test questionnaire was administered and the nasal peak inspiratory flow assessed. Following maximal nasal decongestion, the nasal peak inspiratory flow was again tested and the difference calculated. Topical steroids were administered for at least six weeks. The 22-item Sinonasal Outcome Test was then repeated and the difference calculated.
Data were analysed using means and correlation studies (Spearman's rank correlation). There was no correlation between the pre- versus post-decongestion nasal peak inspiratory flow difference and the pre- versus post-steroid 22-item Sinonasal Outcome Test difference, in chronic rhinosinusitis patients with or without nasal polyps.
The difference between pre- and post-decongestion nasal peak inspiratory flow does not predict chronic rhinosinusitis patients' response to topical steroids.
We have used high-resolution, HST WFC3/IR, near-infrared imaging to conduct a detailed bulge-disk decomposition of the morphologies of ≃ 200 of the most massive (M* > 1011 M⊙) galaxies at 1 < z < 3 in the CANDELS-UDS field. We find that, while such massive galaxies at low redshift are generally bulge-dominated, at redshifts 1<z<2 they are predominantly mixed bulge+disk systems, and by z > 2 they are mostly disk-dominated. Interestingly, we find that while most of the quiescent galaxies are bulge-dominated, a significant fraction (25–40%) of the most quiescent galaxies, have disk-dominated morphologies. Thus, our results suggest that the physical mechanisms which quench star-formation activity are not simply connected to those responsible for the morphological transformation of massive galaxies.
Amorphous GaN films have been deposited onto various substrates by ion-assisted deposition. The films were deposited at room temperature using nitrogen ion energies in the range 40-900 eV. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and nuclear reaction analysis show that the Ga:N atomic ratio is approximately one for films grown with ion energy near 500 eV; these films have the highest transparency. Films grown with ion energies below 300 eV are Ga rich, and show reduced transparency across the visible. Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy confirm the amorphous nature of the films. Annealing studies on a-GaN establish that the films begin to crystallise at a temperature of about 700 C. To investigate the local bonding environment of the Ga or N atoms, we have measured the extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) of the transparent GaN films. The EXAFS results indicate that the films are dominated by heteropolar tetrahedral bonding, with a low density of homopolar bonds.
To investigate the association of antioxidant intakes from diet and supplements with elevated blood C-reactive protein (CRP) and homocysteine (Hcy) concentrations.
A cross-sectional study. The main exposures were vitamins C and E, carotene, flavonoid and Se intakes from diet and supplements. Elevated blood CRP and Hcy concentrations were the outcome measures.
The US population and its subgroups.
We included 8335 US adults aged ≥19 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2002.
In this US population, the mean serum CRP concentration was 4·14 (95 % CI 3·91, 4·37) mg/l. Intakes of vitamins C and E and carotene were inversely associated with the probability of having serum CRP concentrations >3 mg/l in multivariate logistic regression models. Flavonoid and Se intakes were not associated with the odds of elevated serum CRP concentrations. The mean plasma Hcy concentration was 8·61 (95 % CI 8·48, 8·74) μmol/l. Intakes of vitamins C, E, carotenes and Se were inversely associated with the odds of plasma Hcy concentrations >13 μmol/l after adjusting for covariates. Flavonoid intake was not associated with the chance of elevated plasma Hcy concentrations.
These results suggest that high antioxidant intake is associated with lower blood concentrations of CRP and Hcy. These inverse associations may be among the potential mechanisms for the beneficial effect of antioxidant intake on CVD risk mediators in observational studies.
The bonding of Si atoms in μc-Si:H thin films has been investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in conjunction with infra-red spectroscopy (IR), secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and analytical electron microscopy (TEM/EDX/EELS) data. By using a-Si:H and single crystal silicon as reference samples, structural and hydrogen effects could be assessed, since both a-Si:H and μc-Si:H have a similar concentration of hydrogen based on the N15 hydrogen profiling data, but different structures. On the other hand, single crystal silicon and μc-Si:H both have a diamond cubic structure based on electron diffraction data, but single crystal silicon contains little or no hydrogen except adsorbed at the surface. Based on the XPS and IR data, charge transfer of the Si2p core level towards a deep lying level was observed in the μc-Si:H material. IR measurements snowed a large amount of hydrogen was located in the grain boundaries. The charge transfer is mainly due to a change in the hydrogen bonding configuration. A well bonded oxide is formed in the μc-Si:H material near the surface with an almost complete absence of the Si3+ intermediate oxide state. The presence of a large amount of hydrogen (25 at.%) even at a high volume fraction (70%) of μc-phase may limit the oxidation and promote better oxide formation. The variation of the quality of the oxide/μc interface could be a possible explanation for the different photoluminescence observed by various groups for porous μc-Si material.
A method of producing microcrystalline material from thin films of hydrogenated amorphous silicon was investigated. Exposure to gamma and neutron radiation, and silicon self ion implantation were used to induce nucleation in the amorphous material. According to the preliminary results, neutron irradiation represents a most promising method for promoting crystallization.
Single probe infrared low coherence optical interferometry has been proven to be an effective tool for characterization of thin and ultra-thin semiconductor Si and compound materials wafers. Its application was however limited to wafers transparent at probing wavelength, and having relatively smooth surfaces. Purpose of this paper is to present an extension of low coherence interferometry to characterization of non-transparent wafers, and wafers with rough surfaces.
CuAlNiCr shape memory alloy ribbons with thickness ranging from 65 to 60 pm and about 15–20 mm width have been produced by melt-spinnig technique. Finer grain and homogenous columnar structure could be examined. Transformation temperatures and grain size of CuAlNiCr alloy increase with increasing heat treatment time. The reversible color change phenomena( red copper color=bronze color ) associated with phase transformation in alloy ribbons was also observed. Microstructural and transformation characteristics of rapidly quenched CuAlNiCr alloys were observed by x-ray diffraction, optical microscope, four-probe electrical resistivity method, scanning and transmission microscope.
We report some results on the chemical, structural and electrical characterization of Ge and GaAs films, grown on Si (100) substrates by electron-beam evaporation and MOCVD, respectively. Good quality Ge films have been obtained at 700°C substrate temperature at a growth rate of 5 nm/sec in 5 × 10−7 torr. Similarly, good GaAs films were obtained at 650°C and at 0.3 nm/sec. RBS data for GaAs films (1.1 μm) show Xmin approaching 3.5%, and Ge films (1.5 μm) around 3.6%. Photoluminescence of the same films show peaks around 852 nm with FWHM of 14 meV. Cross-sectional TEM and etching show a near-exponential decrease in defect density away from the Ge/Si interface. Detailed characterization results of the S-R, I-V, C-V, and X-ray studies are also described.