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In an effort to better understand the consequences of early weaning (EW) for replacement beef heifers, a two-phase experiment was conducted investigating the impact on metabolic function and documenting reproductive characteristics. In phase 1, Angus×Simmental heifers (n=35) were stratified by BW and sire, and randomly assigned to either a normal weaning (NW, n=18) or EW (n=17) treatment. EW heifers were weaned at 107±3 days of age and provided access to a concentrate-based ration ad libitum with limit-fed mixed grass hay. NW heifers remained with their dams until 232±3 days of age, at which point heifers from both treatments were comingled and grazed on mixed summer pasture. Following NW, weekly blood samples were collected from all heifers for progesterone analyses used to determine the onset of puberty. Pelvic and ovarian size was measured before breeding. All heifers were subjected to an estrous synchronization protocol with timed artificial insemination (AI) at 437±4 days of age. During phase 2 of the experiment, a subset of pregnant heifers (n=16) were divided into two replicates and subjected to a glucose tolerance test, epinephrine challenge and progesterone clearance analysis. Neither age nor BW at puberty differed between EW and NW heifers. Likewise, no differences in pelvic area or ovarian size were observed. Thus, it appears that the reproductive maturity of EW and NW heifers was similar. Heifers studied during phase 2 of the experiment were restricted to those that had become pregnant to their first AI. Within this cohort, EW heifers tended to have lower overall circulating progesterone concentrations than those that were NW (P=0.14). Aspects of glucose and insulin dynamics were also altered, as EW heifers tended to have lower baseline glucose concentrations (P=0.10) despite similar baseline insulin concentrations. Compared with NW heifers, EW heifers had lower insulin area under the curve (P<0.05), which was partly the result of a tendency for lower peak insulin concentrations (P=0.11). Results of the glucose tolerance test indicate that a lesser insulin response was necessary to properly clear the glucose in the EW heifers, suggesting enhanced insulin sensitivity. Collectively, these results indicate that EW is not detrimental for the growth or reproductive development of replacement beef heifers, although some differences in glucose and insulin dynamics persist into adulthood.
Balloon borne alt-azimuth mounted X-ray telescopes flown from Hyderabad, India (17°N), Palestine, Texas (32°N), and Mildura, Australia (34°S), have detected hard X-rays (hv>20KeV) from discrete sources in the Cygnus region.
This paper presents results from a series of rocket flights which have yielded the first unambiguous evidence for the variability of a cosmic X-ray source. The evidence rests primarily on three flights, the first two of which were conducted from Woomera by a joint Universities of Adelaide and Tasmania (UAT) team, and the third from Hawaii by the Lawrence Radiation Laboratories (LRL) of California. Data from two additional flights, one by LRL and the other by the University of Leicester, support this evidence.
The Universities of Adelaide and Tasmania (UAT) have now collaborated in the preparation of four experiments on British Skylark rockets. Two independent X-ray detectors of total sensitive area 40 cm2 were flown on each of two rocket flights launched in April, 1967. The most significant result of these measurements was the discovery of Cen XR-2 and the measurement of the variation in its intensity and spectrum. The third flight, launched in December 1967, carried three X-ray detectors of total area 140 cm2. One of the main results from this flight, evidence for a new X-ray source at high galactic latitude, will be presented in the following paper.
Experts have proposed removing obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) from the anxiety disorders section and grouping it with putatively related conditions in DSM-5. The current study uses co-morbidity and familiality data to inform these issues.
Case family data from the OCD Collaborative Genetics Study (382 OCD-affected probands and 974 of their first-degree relatives) were compared with control family data from the Johns Hopkins OCD Family Study (73 non-OCD-affected probands and 233 of their first-degree relatives).
Anxiety disorders (especially agoraphobia and generalized anxiety disorder), cluster C personality disorders (especially obsessive–compulsive and avoidant), tic disorders, somatoform disorders (hypochondriasis and body dysmorphic disorder), grooming disorders (especially trichotillomania and pathological skin picking) and mood disorders (especially unipolar depressive disorders) were more common in case than control probands; however, the prevalences of eating disorders (anorexia and bulimia nervosa), other impulse-control disorders (pathological gambling, pyromania, kleptomania) and substance dependence (alcohol or drug) did not differ between the groups. The same general pattern was evident in relatives of case versus control probands. Results in relatives did not differ markedly when adjusted for demographic variables and proband diagnosis of the same disorder, though the strength of associations was lower when adjusted for OCD in relatives. Nevertheless, several anxiety, depressive and putative OCD-related conditions remained significantly more common in case than control relatives when adjusting for all of these variables simultaneously.
On the basis of co-morbidity and familiality, OCD appears related both to anxiety disorders and to some conditions currently classified in other sections of DSM-IV.
A high degree of variable growth rate between pigs of the same age has been associated with overall poor herd performance and decreased profitability (Magowan et al., 2007). The aim of the current study was to reduce the variation in growth rate between pigs by grouping them in either uniform or mixed weight groups at weaning and offering them either ‘special’ or ‘normal’ dietary regimes during the post weaning and finishing periods.
The production of fuel from renewable energy sources has generated increasing interest in recent years and biofuel production is being encouraged within the United Kingdom. If current government targets are to be met, approximately 2.7 million tonnes of oil seed rape are needed to supply biodiesel which will result in a significant amount of the by-product glycerol. Glycerol may be a useful source of energy in diets for pigs but there is limited research on the optimum level of inclusion, digestible energy (DE) content or on the effect on performance. Research by Mourot et al (1994) suggested that glycerol tended to reduce performance but significantly improved meat quality as assessed by drip loss. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of glycerol inclusion in finishing pig diets on performance and meat quality.
Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is probably an etiologically heterogeneous condition. Many patients manifest other psychiatric syndromes. This study investigated the relationship between OCD and co-morbid conditions to identify subtypes.
Seven hundred and six individuals with OCD were assessed in the OCD Collaborative Genetics Study (OCGS). Multi-level latent class analysis was conducted based on the presence of eight co-morbid psychiatric conditions [generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), major depression, panic disorder (PD), separation anxiety disorder (SAD), tics, mania, somatization disorders (Som) and grooming disorders (GrD)]. The relationship of the derived classes to specific clinical characteristics was investigated.
Two and three classes of OCD syndromes emerge from the analyses. The two-class solution describes lesser and greater co-morbidity classes and the more descriptive three-class solution is characterized by: (1) an OCD simplex class, in which major depressive disorder (MDD) is the most frequent additional disorder; (2) an OCD co-morbid tic-related class, in which tics are prominent and affective syndromes are considerably rarer; and (3) an OCD co-morbid affective-related class in which PD and affective syndromes are highly represented. The OCD co-morbid tic-related class is predominantly male and characterized by high conscientiousness. The OCD co-morbid affective-related class is predominantly female, has a young age at onset, obsessive–compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) features, high scores on the ‘taboo’ factor of OCD symptoms, and low conscientiousness.
OCD can be classified into three classes based on co-morbidity. Membership within a class is differentially associated with other clinical characteristics. These classes, if replicated, should have important implications for research and clinical endeavors.
The study was designed to provide quantifiable information on both within- and between-herd variation in pig growth rate from birth to slaughter and to examine how this was influenced by moving pigs at a common age to a common environment. Five litters were selected from each of eight pig herds in Northern Ireland with varying growth performance. All eight herds were offered the same nutritional regime. Five pigs (three boars and two gilts) were selected from each litter. In each herd, 22 pigs (12 boars and 10 gilts) were weighed individually, every 4 weeks, from 4 to 20 weeks of age. At 4 weeks of age (weaning) three non-sibling boars were taken from each herd and brought to a common environment where they received medication, were housed individually from 6 weeks of age and offered the same dietary regime. They were weighed and feed intakes were recorded twice weekly. A growth rate difference of 61 g/day (P < 0.001), 112 g/day (P < 0.01) and 170 g/day (P < 0.001) was observed on farm, between the top and bottom quartile of herds during 4 to 8, 8 to 12 and 12 to 20 weeks of age, respectively. This difference in growth rate equated to an average difference in cost of production of ¢13/kg carcass on a birth to bacon unit. When pigs from the different herds were housed in the common environment, large variation in growth performance (143 g/day (P < 0.01) and 243 g/day (P < 0.001) for 8 to 12 and 12 to 20 weeks, respectively) was also observed between the top and bottom quartile of herds. Although feed efficiency was similar, a significant feed intake difference of 329 g/day (P < 0.01) and 655 g/day (P < 0.001) between 8 to 12 and 12 to 20 weeks of age was observed. The variation in growth rate between pigs whether managed on farm or in the common environment was similar (variation in days to 100 kg on farm and in the common environment was 18 and 19 days, respectively). When housed in the common environment, although the top and bottom quartile of pigs converted feed equally efficiently, pigs in the top quartile had significantly higher feed intakes suggesting greater appetites. It is difficult to assess the extent to which these differences can be attributed to genetic effects or pre-weaning environment, and how much the effects of management, disease or genetics contributed to the variation between and within herds.
A study reported by Magowan et al. (2006) determined a large variation in growth rate, between herds of pigs in Northern Ireland reaching a live weight of 100 kg, equating to an average difference of 18 days. All pigs used in the study were of the Landrace x Large White breed. It was considered that the large variation in growth rate was mainly a result of different management or disease levels. It was therefore hypothesised that, if a representative sample of pigs from the various sources were housed in a common environment, performance of the pigs would be similar. The aim of this work was to investigate the variation in the performance of pigs sourced from herds with varying growth performance and housed in a common environment.
Variation in pig performance is common within and between herds. Between herds, this variation may occur as a result of different management and nutritional regimes (Bruininx et al., 2002), disease levels or genetics (Kennedy, 1984). However, the extent of this variation and its subsequent effect on the profitability of a pig unit has not yet been quantified. The aim of this work was to investigate the variation in growth performance of pigs from different herds within Northern Ireland and estimate its impact on profitability.
By-product-based diets generally contain lower levels of energy than cereal-based diets due to higher levels of fibre (Bakker et al., 1995). Supplementation with oil is a common method of improving the digestible energy content of by-product-based diets and it has been reported that this practice may also improve energy digestibility. However, the results of McCann et al., (2004) suggested that the method of oil application to finishing pig diets may affect the digestibility of dietary nutrients. The aim of this experiment was to compare apparent digestibility coefficients determined in finishing pigs offered either by-product based diets or cereal-based diets, with and without vegetable oil blend supplementation applied using two different methods (either directly incorporated into the pellet (IN) or sprayed (SP) on after pelleting).
Oil supplementation of by-product based diets is a common method of increasing the energy content of pig diets to levels equivalent to those of cereal-based diets (Overland et al 1999). However, by-product based diets supplemented with oil have been reported to reduce feed intake and digestible energy intake when compared with cereal-based diets (Magowan et al 2004). It is not known whether this effect occurs as a result of the higher levels of fibre in by-product-based diets or as a result of a reduction in palatability arising from the inclusion of oil in the pellet. The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effect of method of vegetable oil blend application (either incorporated directly into the pellet (IN), or sprayed on after pelleting (SP)) on the performance and carcass characteristics of commercially housed finishing pigs.
Cereals are commonly used in pig diets as the main sources of energy. However, depending on price and availability, diets of equivalent energy content can be formulated using combinations of oil and cereal by-products. The use of oil as an energy source has been shown to improve average daily gain (ADG) feed efficiency and increase digestible energy intake (DEI) (Overland et al 1999). However, there is a need to examine the response in pig performance to incremental levels of oil inclusion compared with the performance of pigs offered cereal-based diets. Therefore, the aim this study was to examine the effects of offering cereal-based diets or diets containing by-products and oil on the growth performance of commercially housed growing pigs.
Cereals have traditionally been used in the pig industry as the main source of energy in pig diets. However, as a result of cereal availability and price, alternative sources of energy have been considered, for example the addition of oil to cereal by-product-based diets. By-product-based diets commonly contain higher levels of fibre than cereal-based diets and several studies (e.g. Bakker et al 1995) have reported them to be less digestible in terms of dry matter (DM), energy, crude protein (CP) and oil. The lower DM digestibility of by-product-based diets may lead to a higher level of slurry output, which is an increasing environmental concern. The aim of this work was to examine the differences in digestibility between by-product-based diets supplemented with oil and cereal-based diets.
It is not possible to carry out in vivo pig digestibility studies on each feed or feed ingredient therefore there is a need for a rapid means of predicting the digestible energy content of a feed or feed ingredient. Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) is an extremely rapid technique and has been used to predict chemical composition and nutritive value for a wide range of feeds and feed ingredients (Leeson et al 2000). In the literature, some workers have reported that NIRS has a high degree of accuracy for determining chemical composition and nutritive value while others have reported a lower degree of accuracy. The aim of the current study was to examine the value of NIRS in predicting the digestible energy (DE) content of barley from which pig diets were formulated.
Two different cannulation procedures (simple ileal ‘T’ cannula v. The post valve ‘T’ caecal cannula (PVTC)) and two indigestible markers (TiO2 v. Cr2O3) were studied with six male littermate pigs fitted with PVTC or simple ileal ‘T’ cannulae. Six diets were used, of which two were based on wheat and wheat bran and the other four were based on two barleys of different bushel weight without and with exogenous enzymes (ß-glucanase/xylanase). Proportional TiO2 and Cr2O3 recoveries in faeces were less than 1·00, the mean values for the six diets being 0·858 for TiO2 and 0·811 for Cr2O3. With both markers, recovery in faeces was lowest for the most digestible wheat-based diet (A). The ileal apparent digestibility (IAD) coefficients of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), energy and amino acids measured with Cr2O3 were significantly (P < 0·001) lower than those measured with TiO2. There was no difference in overall apparent digestibility of DM, CP and energy measured with simple ileal ‘T’ cannula and PVTC techniques. However, IAD of DM, energy and CP measured with the PVTC method were significantly higher than those measured with the simple ileal ‘T’ cannula method. The data also showed that the standard errors with the simple ileal ‘T’ cannula method were greater than when using the PVTC method. Diet significantly affected ileal and overall digestibility of nutrients (P < 0·001) with values being highest for diet A and least for the wheat bran-based diet (B). Overall digestibility (OD) of DM and energy were higher for the higher bushel weight barley-based diet (C) than for the normal bushel weight barley-based diet (E). Enzyme inclusion improved OD for both barley diets and ileal digestibility of energy (0·060) and CP (0·057) for the normal bushel weight barley.
The Townsend index is a measure of social deprivation. It can be applied to postal districts and has been employed in studies examining the ecological associations of mental illness.
We examine the utility of the Townsend index in identifying older populations with a high prevalence and risk of developing depression.
The study was carried out in the context of a cohort study of an age- and gender-stratified sample of 5222 community residents aged 65 years and over. Subjects were interviewed at intervals of two years. The relationships between Townsend score and psychiatric diagnoses (in particular, depression) were examined.
High Townsend scores were associated with increased prevalence and incidence of depression and prevalence of organic psychiatric illness.
The Townsend index can be used to prioritise psychiatric and primary care resources so as to cater for older populations likely to suffer from depression and organic psychiatric conditions.
Does incidence of dementia follow the age pattern of prevalence? Is gender a risk factor? Do patterns of incidence differ between dementias?
To assess age-specific incidence rates of undifferentiated dementias, Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia.
5222 individuals aged $65 years, were interviewed using the Geriatric Mental State/History and Aetiology Schedule. The AGECAT package was used to identify cases at three interviewing waves at two-year intervals. Diagnoses were made using ICD −10 Research Criteria and validated against neurological and psychological examination, with imaging and neuropathology on unselected subsamples.
Incidence rates of the dementias increase with age. Age patterns are similar between Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Gender appears influential in Alzheimer's disease. In England and Wales, 39 437 new cases of Alzheimer's disease (4.9/1000 person-years at risk); 20 513 of vascular dementia (2.6/1000 person-years) and 155 169 of undifferentiated dementia (19/1000 person-years) can be expected each year.
Incidence rates for Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia appear to behave differently with an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease for women compared to vascular dementia.