To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Gamma Cassiopeiae is an enigmatic Be star with unusually hard, strong X-ray emission compared with normal main-sequence B stars. The origin has been debated for decades between two theories: mass accretion onto a hidden compact companion and a magnetic dynamo driven by the star-Be disk differential rotation. There has been no decisive signature found that supports either theory, such as a pulse in X-ray emission or the presence of large-scale magnetic field. In a ~100 ksec duration observation of the star with the Suzaku X-ray observatory in 2011, we detected six rapid X-ray spectral hardening events called “softness dips”. All the softness dip events show symmetric softness ratio variations, and some of them have flat bottoms apparently due to saturation. The softness dip spectra are best described by either ~40% or ~70% partial covering absorption to kT ~12 keV plasma emission by matter with a neutral hydrogen column density of ~2 − 8 × 1021cm−2, while the spectrum outside of these dips is almost free of absorption. This result suggests that two distinct X-ray emitting spots in the γ Cas system, perhaps on a white dwarf companion with dipole mass accretion, are occulted by blobs in the Be stellar wind, the Be disk, or rotating around the white dwarf companion. The formation of a Be star and white dwarf binary system requires mass transfer between two stars; γ Cas may have experienced such activity in the past.
In the previous work, it is reported that the Spin-Seebeck effect (SSE), which refer to the generation of a spin current from a temperature gradient, can be enhanced by Fe interface treatment. Here, we investigated the Fe thickness (dFe) dependency of spin-Seebeck voltage (VSSE) and mixing conductance (gr) in Pt/Fe/Bi:YIG/SGGG system. As a result, magnitude of VSSE had a peak at dFe ≓ 1 ML (monolayer , ≓ 0.3 mm), and also increase of gr was saturated at this point. It suggests that VSSE increase with increasing gr when dFe is smaller than 1.0 ML. For the case in which dFe is larger than 1.0ML, however, VSSE decreases due to a spin current decay in Fe layer with a constant gr. These experimental results are consistent with previous theoretical works.
A large outbreak of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O111 and O157 occurred in Japan in April 2011. We conducted an unmatched case-control study and trace-back investigation to determine the source of EHEC O111 infection and risk factors for severe complications. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was performed to help define cases. A total of 86 individuals met the case definition. Of these, 40% experienced haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS), 24% acute encephalopathy, and 6% died. Illness was significantly associated with eating the raw beef dish yukhoe (odds ratio 19·64, 95% confidence interval 7·03–54·83), the likely food vehicle. EHEC O111 and its closely related stx-negative variants were found in the beef. HUS occurred most frequently in individuals aged 5–9 years, and this age group was significantly associated with acute encephalopathy. The prevalence of HUS and acute encephalopathy was higher than in previous non-O157-related outbreaks, indicating a high risk of severe complications.
To describe a case of giant cell reparative granuloma of the temporal bone which extended into the middle-ear cavity, and which was successfully treated surgically via a transmastoid approach, with hearing preservation.
A 37-year-old man presented with a one-year history of right-sided hearing loss, complicated by a three-month history of otalgia and a sensation of aural fullness. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an osteolytic tumour lesion in the right temporal bone. The diagnosis was confirmed by biopsy from the mastoid lesion.
Investigation and intervention:
Pure-tone audiometry, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were conducted, followed by total resection.
The giant cell reparative granuloma of the temporal bone was completely resected, with preservation of hearing.
Although this patient's giant cell reparative granuloma of the temporal bone extended into the middle-ear cavity, total resection was achieved, with preservation of hearing. To the best of our knowledge, hearing preservation following resection of giant cell reparative granuloma of the temporal bone has not previously been reported.
This paper reports a NEMS (Nano Electro Mechanical Syetems) tunable color filter based on subwavelength grating with high color uniformity and low drive voltage. We newly proposed a GVG (Ground-Voltage-Ground) type tunable color filter deployed with a parallel-plate actuator with three pairs of electrode to decrease a crosstalk of an electrostatic attraction force between each actuator. The proposed structure was fabricated using an SOI wafer. The color tuning using was demonstrated by applying the drive voltage of 6.7 V. The reflected light intensity was decreased by 34 % at 680 nm wavelength. The color uniformity was also obtained in the filter area by reducing the variation of the displacement on one-dimensional arrayed actuators.
We report an extremely rare case of congenital cholesteatoma of the mastoid region, presenting as acute mastoiditis. We also review the 16 previously reported cases of congenital cholesteatoma of the mastoid region.
A 65-year-old man presented with left-sided, post-auricular swelling and pain. Acute mastoiditis was diagnosed, with computed tomography demonstrating destruction of the bony plates of the posterior cranial fossa and sigmoid sinus. Initial surgery revealed a cholesteatoma in the mastoid, with no extension into the aditus ad antrum or attic. These findings were confirmed by pathological and immunohistochemical analysis of the surgical specimen, the latter using involucrin. The cholesteatoma matrix was completely removed in a second operation.
Including this case, only four of the 17 reported cases of congenital cholesteatoma of the mastoid region showed post-auricular pain or swelling, indicating acute mastoiditis. Clinicians should bear in mind that congenital cholesteatoma may be present in patients presenting with mastoiditis, particularly adults.
There are few data on circulatory pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and cytokine gene polymorphisms in H. pylori-positive patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the effects of H. pylori infection, gastric atrophy, and the IL-8 T-251A polymorphism on plasma IL-8 levels in 98 Japanese adults. Seventy-one subjects were positive for H. pylori infection. The geometric mean of plasma IL-8 concentration was significantly higher in subjects with H. pylori infection than in those without (P=0·001). The development of atrophy was negatively associated with IL-8 levels in the H. pylori-positive subjects, although not significantly. Plasma IL-8 levels in the T/T genotype were associated with H. pylori infection and atrophy status (P=0·016). Our findings suggested that circulating IL-8 levels were associated with H. pylori infection. The effect of H. pylori infection on plasma IL-8 levels was not clearly modified by the IL-8 T-251A polymorphism.
Yellow nutsedge infests a large number of hectares in the Treasure Valley of eastern Oregon and western Idaho. Much of its continued expansion appears to be related to onion production in the valley. Fall applications of metham often produce inconsistent results when used to control yellow nutsedge before planting an onion crop. Trials were conducted in the laboratory to determine the influence on yellow nutsedge control of metham dose, duration of exposure, temperature during exposure, and tuber conditioning by washing and chilling at 3 C. All factors influenced metham efficacy against yellow nutsedge tubers. The dose causing 50% reduction in sprouting tubers (I50) for metham ranged from 22 to 76 mg kg−1 of soil and was lower for conditioned tubers than nonconditioned tubers across all conditions, except when tubers were exposed at 25 C for 3 d. Nonconditioned tubers were unaffected by metham after 1 d exposure at 5 C. Increasing exposure temperature or increasing exposure duration decreased sprouting for nonconditioned tubers. As exposure duration and exposure temperature increased, differences among conditioned and nonconditioned tubers were less. Temperature and exposure duration affects metham efficacy against yellow nutsedge, and the condition of the tubers at the time of treatment also has a significant effect. Applications of metham at a time when yellow nutsedge tubers are not dormant may improve yellow nutsedge control.
The phase equilibria and phase transformation of the body-centered cubic (bcc) phase in the Cu–Ti–Al system were investigated by the diffusion couple method, metallographic examination, differential scanning calorimetry, and x-ray diffraction. The isothermal sections at 700 and 900 °C and vertical sections at 18 at.% Al, 22 at.% Al, and 25 at.% Al in the Cu-rich portion were determined. These results indicate that (i) the Cu2TiAl compound with the L21 Heusler structure has a larger solubility range; (ii) the stable B2 + L21 miscibility gap of the ordered bcc phase exists until the liquid phase, and the tie lines of this miscibility gap are almost parallel with the Cu–Ti side; (iii) the composition and temperature for the eutectic reaction (L ↔ B2 + L21) are about 7 at.% Ti and about 970 °C, respectively, and (iv) the velocity of the eutectoid decomposition [bcc ↔ face-centered cubic (fcc) + D83] of the bcc phase with martensitic morphology in the Cu–Ti–Al alloys is slower than that of the Cu–Al alloys.
The general formula of the amphiboles of this series may be written as NaxMg2(Mg(5-y)Aly,)(Si(8-z)Alz)O22(OH)2, where Mg = Mg + Fe2+ + Mn2+ and Al = Al + Fe3+ + Ti. The individual <T–O> distances are linear functions of their Al content, and the Al content is strongly ordered in the following way: T1B > T1A » T2B » T2A. The <M1-O>, <M2-O> and <M3–O> distances are linear functions of the mean ionic radius of their constituent cations. End-member compositions may be written as follows: A☐Mg2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2O22(OH)2; A☐Mg2(Mg3Al2)(Si6Al2)O22(OH)2; ANaMg2Mg5(Si7Al) These compositions define a plane in xyz space across which the data of Schindler et al. (2008), measured on amphiboles from amphibolites, follow a tightly constrained trajectory. Anthophyllite–gedrite amphiboles equilibrated under significantly different P-T conditions (e.g. igneous rocks, contact-metamorphic rocks) follow trends that diverge from this trajectory, with greater Na and Al contents and relatively smaller Al contents. Detailed examination of the local bond topology involving the A and M2 sites indicates that the maximum degree of bond-valence compensation will occur for incorporation of ANa and M2Al in the ratio 4:10, and hence 2.5 ANa = M2Al in these amphiboles. This relation closely fits the data of Schindler et al. (2008), suggesting that the variation in chemical composition in anthophyllite–gedrite amphiboles is strongly constrained by the anion bond-valence requirements of the Pnma amphibole structure. We further suggest that different compositional trends for ortho-amphiboles equilibrated under different P-T conditions are the result of the valence-sum rule operating with (different) bond-lengths characteristic of these P-T conditions.
The crystal structures of twenty-five orthorhombic Fe-Mg-Mn amphiboles, a = 18.525 – 18.620, b = 17.806-18.034, c = 5.264-5.303 Å, V = 1737.6-1776.7, space group = Pnma, Z = 4, have been refined to R indices in the range 2.1–7.8% using 790–1804 unique observed reflections measured with Mo-Kα X-radiation on a Bruker P4 automated four-circle diffractometer equipped with a 1K CCD detector. The quality of the refinements is strongly a function of the Al content of the crystals because of unmixing in the central part of the series due to the presence of a low-temperature solvus. The amphibole crystals were analysed by electron microprobe subsequent to collection of the X-ray intensity data and span the anthophyllite-gedrite series from 0.17–1.82 Al a.p.f.u. Mössbauer spectroscopy shows that the amphiboles of this series commonly contain small but significant amounts of Fe3+ . The amount of Al is linearly related to the grand <T-O> distance by the equation <T-O> = 1.6214 + 0.171 Al, R = 0.980; the slope of this relation is not significantly different from that characteristic of a hard-sphere model. The <T-O> distances indicate the following site preference for Al: T1B > T2B > T1A » T2A. The <M2-O> distances are compatible with all Al and Fe3+ ordered at the M2 site. The grand <M1,2,3 '3 –O> distance is related to the mean radius of the constituent cations, <rM1,2,3>, by the equation ≪M1,2,3-O≫ = 1.4684 + 0.8553(7) <rM1,2,3>.
On the basis of the CALPHAD (Calculation of Phase Diagrams) method, the compositional range of stable miscibility gap and volume fractions of the two liquid phases in the Cu–Fe–Cr–Ni system were predicted, which can provide the guidance for design of self-formed composite materials. Based on such information, the self-formed pencil-like bulk composite materials consisting of copper alloy and two kinds of stainless steels were prepared by controlling the compositions of Cu-rich and Fe-rich phases in immiscible liquid system by the conventional casting process. The experimental results are in good agreement with the ones predicted by calculation. This study indicates that it is possible to develop the pencil-like bulk composite materials consisting of copper alloy and stainless steels by the conventional casting process.
Surface lattice displacements of titanium dioxide (TiO2: rutile) during ultra-violet (UV) light irradiation have been investigated using a total reflection x-ray diffraction, which provides a high signal to noise ratio (S/N) and superior in-plane surface diffraction. Under the environments in vapors of H2O, CH3OH, C2H5OH and C3H6OH, the photo-catalytic activities of TiO2 (110), (100) and (001) surfaces subject to UV irradiation have been measured. It is found that the diffraction peaks and their full width half maxima (FWHMs) show some peculiarities with respect to the photo-catalytic activities in both surface lattices and adsorbed molecules in vapors. Furthermore, Kelvin force microscopy (KFM) has showed that there exists a very high surface potential, probably due to surface atom displacements induced by UV irradiation. With regard to the origin of the photo-catalytic activities, the induced surface potentials are discussed.
Structures and electrical properties of newly synthesized vinylidene fluoride (VDF) oligomer [CF3(CH2CF2)17I] films evaporated onto various substrates around liquid nitrogen temperature were investigated. As a result, the VDF oligomer films were mainly formed with ferroelectric phase (form I) crystals and the molecular chains were oriented parallel to the substrate surfaces regardless of both the kind of the substrates and the thickness of the VDF oligomer films. In addition to these properties, the VDF oligomer films showed polarization reversal due to 180° rotation of the polar VDF oligomer molecules according to the applied voltages. This ferroelectric behavior was verified by local poling and piezoresponse measurements with an atomic force microscope, and by measurements of D-E hysteresis curves.
Gadolinium(Gd) doped ferroelectric lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLGZT 6/2/65/35) thin films were prepared by sol-gel spin coating technique. Fused silica and platinized silicon were used as substrates. Two-step pre-annealing heat treatment was employed to prepare crack free films. Annealing temperature was optimized though the x-ray diffraction studies to prepare films in single perovskite phase. Effects of Pb concentration and the seeding layer on the crystallization were studied. Optical transmission spectra were recorded and from this, refractive index, extinction coefficient and thickness were calculated for amorphous films on fused silica annealed at 400°C. In addition, the resultant films showed more than 60% transmission in the visible region. The electrical measurements were conducted on metal-ferroelectric-metal (MFM) capacitors. Ferroelectric properties of crystalline films were studied by plotting the P-E hysteresis loop.
Optical properties of fully-strained wurtzite and zincblende InxGa1-xN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) structures were compared to discuss the origin of exciton localization. In contrast to the hexagonal InGaN MQWs, the photoluminescence (PL) peak energy of cubic InGaN MQWs showed a moderate blueshift with decreasing well thickness, L, and low-temperature PL decay time of the cubic MQWs did not depend strongly on L. The results imply that the wavefunction overlap in cubic InGaN MQWs was not reduced compared to the hexagonal ones, since they do not suffer from the electric field normal to the QW plane due either to spontaneous or piezoelectric polarization. Both MQWs exhibited a large and composition-dependent bandgap bowing, and time-resolved PL (TR-PL) signals showed a stretched-exponential decay even at room temperature. The exciton localization is considered to be an intrinsic property of InGaN.
The arsenic dose dependence of electrical properties for implanted samples at 500°C and subsequently annealed at 1600°C for 30min has been investigated to derivate the activation energies of the arsenic donors in silicon carbide. Hall effect measurements were performed between 20K and 773K. Hall carrier concentration of implanted sample with high dose of 7×1015 cm−2 is independence of temperature, which indicates the formation of implanted layer with metallic conduction. For the sample with low dose of 1×1014 cm−2, the experimental Hall mobility varies directly as T3/2 below 80K and as T−3/2 above 150K. The activation energies of arsenic donors determined from the implanted sample with low dose using a least-squares fit of the charge neutrality equation are 66.8 meV for hexagonal site and 127.0 meV for cubic site, respectively.