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Adult ventilator-associated event (VAE) definitions include ventilator-associated conditions (VAC) and subcategories for infection-related ventilator-associated complications (IVAC) and possible ventilator-associated pneumonia (PVAP). We explored these definitions for children.
Pediatric, cardiac, or neonatal intensive care units (ICUs) in 6 US hospitals
Patients ≤18 years old ventilated for ≥1 day
We identified patients with pediatric VAC based on previously proposed criteria. We applied adult temperature, white blood cell count, antibiotic, and culture criteria for IVAC and PVAP to these patients. We matched pediatric VAC patients with controls and evaluated associations with adverse outcomes using Cox proportional hazards models.
In total, 233 pediatric VACs (12,167 ventilation episodes) were identified. In the cardiac ICU (CICU), 62.5% of VACs met adult IVAC criteria; in the pediatric ICU (PICU), 54.2% of VACs met adult IVAC criteria; and in the neonatal ICU (NICU), 20.2% of VACs met adult IVAC criteria. Most patients had abnormal white blood cell counts and temperatures; we therefore recommend simplifying surveillance by focusing on “pediatric VAC with antimicrobial use” (pediatric AVAC). Pediatric AVAC with a positive respiratory diagnostic test (“pediatric PVAP”) occurred in 8.9% of VACs in the CICU, 13.3% of VACs in the PICU, and 4.3% of VACs in the NICU. Hospital mortality was increased, and hospital and ICU length of stay and duration of ventilation were prolonged among all pediatric VAE subsets compared with controls.
We propose pediatric AVAC for surveillance related to antimicrobial use, with pediatric PVAP as a subset of AVAC. Studies on generalizability and responsiveness of these metrics to quality improvement initiatives are needed, as are studies to determine whether lower pediatric VAE rates are associated with improvements in other outcomes.
There is a paucity of data on the micronutrient status of low-income, lactating South African women and their infants under 6 months of age. The aim of this study was to elucidate the level of anaemia and vitamin A deficiency (VAD) in peri-urban breast-feeding women and their young infants.
Cross-sectional study including anthropometric, biochemical and infant feeding data.
Peri-urban settlement in Cape Town, South Africa.
Breast-feeding women (n = 113) and their infants (aged 1–6 months) attending a peri-urban clinic.
Mean (standard deviation (SD)) haemoglobin (Hb) of the lactating mothers was 12.4 (1.3) gdl−1, with 32% found to be anaemic (Hb < 12 g dl−1). Maternal serum retinol was 49.8 (SD 13.3) μg dl−1, with 4.5% VAD. Using breast milk, mean (SD) retinol concentration was found to be 70.6 (24.6) μg dl−1 and 15.7 (8.3) μg/g milk fat, with 13% below the cut-off level of <8μg/g fat. There was no correlation found between breast milk retinol and infant serum retinol. Z-scores (SD) of height-for-age, weight-for-age and weight-for-height were –0.69 (0.81), 0.89 (1.01) and 1.78 (0.83), respectively. Mean (SD) infant Hb was 10.9 (1.1) g dl−1, with the prevalence of anaemia being 50%, 33% and 12% using Hb cut-offs below 11 g dl−1, 10.5 g dl−1 and 9.5 g dl−1, respectively. Mean (SD) infant serum retinol was 26.9 (7.2) μg dl−1, with 10% being VAD. None of the infants was exclusively breast-fed, 22% were predominantly breast-fed and 787percnt; received complementary (mixed) breast-feeding. Thirty-two per cent of infants received weaning foods at an exceptionally young age (≤1 month old).
A high rate of anaemia is present in lactating women residing in resource-poor settings. Moreover, their seemingly healthy infants under 6 months of age are at an elevated risk of developing early-onset anaemia and at lower risk of VAD.
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