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Parotid gland carcinoma is a rare and complicated histopathological classification. Therefore, assembling a sufficient number of cases with long-term outcomes in a single institute can present a challenge.
The medical records of 108 parotid gland carcinoma patients who were treated at Kyushu University Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan, between 1983 and 2014 were reviewed. The survival outcomes were analysed according to clinicopathological findings.
Forty-six patients had low clinical stage tumours (I–II), and 62 patients had high clinical stage tumours (III–IV). Fifty-two, 10 and 46 patients had low-, intermediate- and high-grade tumours, respectively. Twenty-seven of 65 cases had positive surgical margins. In high clinical stage and intermediate- to high-grade tumours, adjuvant radiation therapy was correlated with local recurrence-free survival (p = 0.0244). Intermediate- to high-grade tumours and positive surgical margins were significantly associated with disease-specific survival in multivariate analysis (p = 0.0002 and p = 0.0058).
The results of this study show that adjuvant radiation therapy is useful for improved local control in patients with high clinical stage and intermediate- to high-grade tumours.
Recently, many superflares on solar-type stars were discovered as white-light flares (WLFs). A correlation between the energies (E) and durations (t) of superflares is derived as t∝E0.39, and this can be theoretically explained by magnetic reconnection (t∝E1/3). In this study, we carried out a statistical research on 50 solar WLFs with SDO/HMI to examine the t-E relation. As a result, the t-E relation on solar WLFs (t∝E0.38) is quite similar stellar superflares, but the durations of stellar superflares are much shorter than those extrapolated from solar WLFs. We present the following two interpretations; (1) in solar flares, the cooling timescale of WL emission may be longer than the reconnection one, and the decay time can be determined by the cooling timescale; (2) the distribution can be understood by applying a scaling law t∝E1/3B−5/3 derived from the magnetic reconnection theory.
XBT 0748-676 is a dipping LMXB source, with dips in X-ray intensity occurring at the orbital period of ~ 3.8 hrs. It is a member of the sub-group of dipping sources also including XB 1916-053 and XB 1254-690 in which the spectral evolution in dipping has previously been modelled by the “absorbed plus unabsorbed” approach, in which the dip spectra are modelled by two terms, each having the same form as used for non-dip emission, one of which is strongly absorbed but one which is not absorbed, which has a normalisation decreasing strongly in dipping. This energy-independent decrease has sometimes been taken to imply electron scattering in the absorber.
Absorption line features were detected at 4.1 keV from X 1636-536 with the Tenma satellite in the spectra of X-ray bursts (Waki et al., 1984). Similar features were also detected from X 1608-52 and EXO 1747-214 during bursts (Nakamura et al., 1988; Magnier et al., 1989). These features at 4.1 keV may be interpreted as the redshifted Kα absorption line of helium-like iron atoms. However, such interpretation requires extremely soft equation of state for the nuclear matter, and confirmation with high resolution detectors is urged (Lewin et al., 1993). To investigate the line features, we observed X 1636-536 with ASCA for ~ 240 ksec.
We have been carrying out solar wind measurements using the interplanetary scintillation (IPS) method. Our IPS observation system is operated at a frequency of 327MHz and consists of four stations located at Toyokawa, Fuji, Sugadaira and Kiso. The present system, however, has insufficient sensitivity to measure enough IPS sources for observing the solar wind with adequate spatial and temporal resolution. Therefore we have been excuting the upgrade project since 1994 in order to observe a larger number of compact radio sources. The Fuji system has been improved successfully and has achieved sensitivity by a factor over five compared with the previous system. The upgrade project is now in progress for the Toyokawa and Sugadaira station.
This study determined the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella isolated from broiler flocks in Japan. Caecal dropping samples were collected from 288 broiler flocks between November 2007 and February 2010. Salmonella was prevalent in 248 (86·1%) broiler flocks. The top three serovars were S. Infantis, S. Manhattan and S. Schwarzengrund. S. Infantis was found in all regions tested in this study. However, S. Manhattan and S. Schwarzengrund were frequently found only in the western part of Japan. High antimicrobial resistance rates were observed against oxytetracycline (90·2%), dihydrostreptomycin (86·7%) and ampicillin (36·5%), and 258 (90·5%) of 285 isolates were resistant to two or more antimicrobial agents. Interestingly, 26·3% of isolates were resistant to ceftiofur, especially 38·1% of S. Infantis isolates, although its use in broilers has not been approved in Japan. This study showed that Salmonella is highly prevalent (86·1%) in Japanese broiler flocks, that 90·5% of Salmonella isolates were multidrug-resistant, and that S. Infantis frequently exhibited resistance to cephalosporin antimicrobial agents.
Excitonic resonance energies in a C-plane AlN epilayer on the (0001) sapphire substrate grown by low-pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy were determined as a function of temperature by means of optical reflectance (OR) and cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements. The OR spectra exhibited distinct reflectance anomalies at the photon energies just above the multiple internal reflection fringes, and the spectral lineshape was fitted considering A (???u7v7c) and BC (???9v,???17v7c) exciton transitions. The energies of them at 0 K were obtained to be 6.211 and 6.266 eV, giving the crystal field splitting (Δcr) of approximately 55 meV. The AlNfilm exhibited an excitonic emission even at 300 K, which is due to the small Bohr radius of excitons and large longitudinal optical phonon energies. The Einstein characteristic temperature Q E was estimated to be 580 K.
InGaP thin films are evaluated as wide-bandgap materials for GaAs surface passivation. A 200-Å InGaP thin film increases GaAs photoluminescence intensity 25-fold and enables Schottky barrier heights of more than 0.6 eV on n-type GaAs layers with a carrier concentration of 3×1018 /cm3. These effects persist after annealing at 800 °C for 10 min. InGaP thin films are thus suitable as surface passivation films for high-performance GaAs-MESFETs.
A second order nonlinear optical susceptibility inversion structure in the thickness direction (NIST) is proposed for enhancing the efficiency of Cerenkov radiation type phase matched second harmonic generation (CRPM-SHG). With the aid of the coupled-mode theory, it is analyzed that the efficiency is enhanced by 50 to 100 times by introducing the NIST structure to a waveguiding layer made of a 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine (DCANP) Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film, and that the optical conditions for the most efficient CRPM-SHG are equivalent to those for guided mode SHG at the cutoff points of the modes. Several fabrication methods are possible for NIST waveguides. For the first time, a NIST waveguide has been fabricated using a DCANP-LB film by employing a novel and simple technique in which the substrate inversion is carried out during the dipping process. The inversion in nonlinearity was confirmed using the maker fringe method and polarized absorption spectra. A NIST planar waveguide of 260 Monolayers of DCANP (570 nm thick) was fabricated. Intense CRPM-SHG was observed from the waveguide when a YAG laser was coupled into it. The intensity was 20 to 30 times larger than that of a conventional waveguide of the same thickness.
The microstructure of the electroless-plated CoNiReP/NiMoP doublelayered media was examined with various methods and the origin of the inplane anisotropy initial regions of the CoNiReP recording layers was discussed. It was confirmed that the initial region consists of randomly oriented fcc phase with Ni-rich composition, showing the granular condition, while the perpendicular anisotropy region at the top consists of <002> perpendicularly oriented hcp phase, showing the columnar structure. It is considered that the formation of the initial region is due to a preferential deposition of Ni onto the underlayers, and that the thickness of the initial region changes due to a change in the condition of the underlayers, especially that of deposition activity and/or morphology at their surfaces.
The mechanical fatigue life and tensile property of a Ti-41at.%Ni-8.5at.%Cu alloy, which was solution-treated after some thermo-mechanical treatments, were investigated at 370±1 K as a function of deformation speed. The tensile properties were also investigated at 295±1 K as a function of deformation speed. The B2→B19 martensitic transformation start temperature, Ms, of the alloy was determined to be 338 K by a differential scanning calorimetry, while that of the as-rolled alloy could not be determined. Two types of fatigue tests were carried out by using plate-shaped specimens of 3.5 mm width and 1.5 mm thickness with sinusoidal waveform stresses of 20 Hz and 0.5 Hz frequencies being applied respectively. The fatigue life obtained from the 20 Hz tests was superior to that from the 0.5 Hz tests, the former being about 2 times longer than the latter at the same stress level. Tensile tests were performed at three tensilem speeds of 8.3 × 106, 8.3 × 10−5 and 8.3 × 10−3 m/s. In all the stress - strain curves obtained, an apparent yielding was observed after the liner elastic deformation. The apparent yielding is due to the occurrence of martensitic transformation. The critical stress for inducing martensite and tensile fracture stress increased with increasing tensile speed. Therefore, it is clear that fatigue and tensile properties of Ti-Ni-Cu shape memory alloys are strongly affected by not only test temperature but also deformation speed.
Initial oxidation process of silicon in UV/ozone ambient has been monitored using a multi-wavelength, in-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry. Ozone gas was chemically formed by photochemical reaction of oxygen under ulUmviolet illuimination. The oxide growth was monitored for hydrogenated silicon surfaces as functions of oxygen gas flow rate, gas pressure and wafer temperature. Initial oxidation rates were very high at almost all the temperatures. The oxidation rate was 0.2 nm/min about ten times higher than that for thermal oxidation without UV light at low temperatures. The accelerated oxidation was probably due to an electric field effect on the oxidation of back-bond silicon by active oxygen atoms included in the ozone gas.
A hyperbranched conjugated polymer containing triphenylamine was prepared by the Grignard reaction of tris(4-bromophenyl)amine 1, via the coupling of N, N-bis(4-bromophenyl)-N-(4-bromomagnesiophenyl)amine 2 with the catalytic amount of Ni(acac)2. Grignard reagent 2 reacted as an AB2-type monomer to give hyperbranched conjugated polymer 3 in a one-step process. Polymer 3 was also obtained via the Pd-catalyzed coupling of N, N-bis(4-bromophenyl)-4-animobenzeneboronic acid 4. Polymer 3 had an average molecular weight of 4.0–6.3×103 and was found to be soluble in organic solvents such as THF and CHC13. A cast film had an anodic peak at 0.95–1.20 V vs. Ag wire. It was dark blue above the oxidation potential and brown-yellow in the neutral state. When polymer 3 was doped with iodine, its conductivity rose to 0.8–3.0 S/cm
We have developed a new type of printed circuit board which is called “IBSS” (Interpenetrating polymer network Build up Structure System) for the purpose of meeting the demand of high density routing, high reliability and low cost substrates in IC packages. The new technology achieves 50μm line / 50μm space and 100μm diameter photo‐via hole. Full additive method is applied for patterning, and the build‐up method is used to form the multi‐layer structure. The newly developed photo‐imagable dielectric resin, “IPN”, which has a glass transition of 200'C, a copper peel strength of 1.5kg/cm, and withstands 1000 cycles of temperature cycling (TCB), is used for IBSS. IPN is composed of high heat resistant photo‐sensitive epoxy and supper engineering plastic. This IBSS technology is suitable for direct chip attachment. This paper presents the characteristics IBSS.
J aggregates cyanine dyes have been successfully doped directly in sol-gel derived silicate thin films. The films are transparent, homogeneous and stable at room temperature. The J aggregates successfully incorporated in rigid SiO2 framework were characterized by absorption spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy. The films are expected to be useful for non-linear optical devices, multiple photon recording and photoelectric cell.
Whole-genome scans have identified Dmo1 as a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for obesity
and dyslipidaemia in the Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat. We have produced
congenic rats for the Dmo1 locus, using marker-assisted speed congenic protocols, enforced by
selective removal of other QTL regions (QTL-marker-assisted counterselection), to efficiently
transfer chromosomal segments from non-diabetic Fischer 344 (F344) rats into the OLETF
background. In the third generation of congenic animals, we observed a substantial therapeutic
effect of the Dmo1 locus on lipid metabolism, obesity control and plasma glucose homeostasis. We
conclude that single-allele correction of an impaired genetic pathway can generate a substantial
therapeutic effect, despite the complex polygenic nature of type II diabetic syndromes.
The discussions in this theme provided an opportunity to address the unique hazards facing the Pacific Rim.
Details of the methods used are provided in the preceding paper. The chairs moderated all presentations and produced a summary that was presented to an assembly of all of the delegates. Since the findings from the Theme 3 and Theme 7 groups were similar, the chairs of both groups presided over one workshop that resulted in the generation of a set of action plans that then were reported to the collective group of all delegates.
The main points developed during the presentations and discussion included: (1) communication, (2) coordination, (3) advance planning and risk assessment, and (4) resources and knowledge.
Action plans were summarized in the following ideas: (1) plan disaster responses including the different types, identification of hazards, focusing training based on experiences, and provision of public education; (2) improve coordination and control; (3) maintain communications, assuming infrastructure breakdown; (4) maximize mitigation through standardized evaluations, the creation of a legal framework, and recognition of advocacy and public participation; and (5) provide resources and knowledge through access to existing therapies, the media, and increasing and decentralizing hospital inventories.
The problems in the Asia-Pacific rim are little different from those encountered elsewhere in the world. They should be addressed in common with the rest of the world.
We have studied the thermoelectric properties of a SiC-based thermoelectric semiconductor with Ag and polysilastylene (PSS) as a dopant and as a sintering additive, respectively. Ag is an effective dopant to decrease the electrical resistivity of the SiC-based p-type thermoelectric semiconductor. It introduces carrier (hole) concentration 103−104 times larger than the case of Al-doped SiC with the typical doping concentration. PSS can control the sample density, which is one of the important factors in decreasing the electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of the sintered samples. The figure of merit of the sample with Ag 2.0 wt% and PSS 0.1 wt% was estimated to reach 4 × 10−4 K−1 at 700 °C. This value implies that the SiC/Ag system is one of the promising thermoelectric materials for a high-temperature region.