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The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC) emergency medicine (EM) programs transitioned to the Competence by Design training framework in July 2018. Prior to this transition, a nation-wide survey was conducted to gain a better understanding of EM faculty and senior resident attitudes towards the implementation of this new program of assessment.
A multi-site, cross-sectional needs assessment survey was conducted. We aimed to document perceptions about competency-based medical education, attitudes towards implementation, perceived/prompted/unperceived faculty development needs. EM faculty and senior residents were nominated by program directors across RCPSC EM programs. Simple descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data.
Between February and April 2018, 47 participants completed the survey (58.8% response rate). Most respondents (89.4%) thought learners should receive feedback during every shift; 55.3% felt that they provided adequate feedback. Many respondents (78.7%) felt that the ED would allow for direct observation, and most (91.5%) participants were confident that they could incorporate workplace-based assessments (WBAs). Although a fair number of respondents (44.7%) felt that Competence by Design would not impact patient care, some (17.0%) were worried that it may negatively impact it. Perceived faculty development priorities included feedback delivery, completing WBAs, and resident promotion decisions.
RCPSC EM faculty have positive attitudes towards competency-based medical education-relevant concepts such as feedback and opportunities for direct observation via WBAs. Perceived threats to Competence by Design implementation included concerns that patient care and trainee education might be negatively impacted. Faculty development should concentrate on further developing supervisors’ teaching skills, focusing on feedback using WBAs.
Research suggests that an 8-week mindfulness-based cognitive therapy
(MBCT) course may be effective for generalised anxiety disorder
To compare changes in anxiety levels among participants with GAD randomly
assigned to MBCT, cognitive–behavioural therapy-based psychoeducation and
In total, 182 participants with GAD were recruited (trial registration
number: CUHK_CCT00267) and assigned to the three groups and followed for
5 months after baseline assessment with the two intervention groups
followed for an additional 6 months. Primary outcomes were anxiety and
Linear mixed models demonstrated significant group × time interaction
(F(4,148) = 5.10, P = 0.001) effects
for decreased anxiety for both the intervention groups relative to usual
care. Significant group × time interaction effects were observed for
worry and depressive symptoms and mental health-related quality of life
for the psychoeducation group only.
These results suggest that both of the interventions appear to be
superior to usual care for the reduction of anxiety symptoms.
To determine the outcomes of patients discharged from the emergency department (ED) with a bloodstream infection (BSI) and how these outcomes are influenced by antibiotic treatment.
We identified every BSI in adult patients discharged from our ED to the community between July 1, 2002, and March 31, 2011. The medical records of all cases were reviewed to determine antibiotic treatment in the ED and at discharge. Microorganism sensitivities were used to determine whether antibiotics were appropriate. These data were linked to population-based administrative data to determine specific patient outcomes within the subsequent 2-week period: death, urgent hospitalization, or an unplanned return to the ED.
A total of 480 adults with BSI were identified (1.49 cases per 1,000 adults discharged from the department). Compared to controls (321,048 patients), BSI patients had a significantly higher risk of urgent hospitalization (adjusted OR 2.1 [95% CI 1.6–2.8]) and unplanned return to the ED (adjusted OR 4.1 [95% CI 3.3–4.9]). Outcome risk was significantly lowered in BSI patients who received appropriate antibiotics in the ED and at discharge. In elderly patients, the risk of urgent hospitalization increased significantly as the time to appropriate antibiotics was delayed.
BSI patients discharged from the ED have a significantly increased risk of urgent hospitalization and unplanned return to the ED in the subsequent 2 weeks. These risks decrease significantly with the timely provision of appropriate antibiotics. Our results support the aggressive use of measures ensuring that such patients receive appropriate antibiotics as soon as possible.
We question a central premise upon which the target article is based. Namely, we point out that the evidence for “positive illusions” is in fact quite mixed. As such, the question of whether positive illusions are adaptive from an evolutionary standpoint may be premature in light of the fact that their very existence may be an illusion.
The objective of the study was to validate the factorial structure of the short form of the Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC-13) with a sample of substance abuse clients to facilitate health promotion research with this population in the future. Participants were 406 clients recruited from seven residential therapeutic community programs for the treatment of substance abuse. Four confirmatory factor models were tested: (1) a three-factor correlated model; (2) a two-factor correlated model; (3) a 13-item one-factor model; and (4) a 9-item one-factor model. The results indicated that the data did not fit the three-factor correlated model and the two-factor correlated model, whereas empirical data fits the 13-item one-factor and the 9-item one-factor models reasonably well, with the latter representing a significantly better fit than the former one. These results are consistent with previous studies and reflected a unidimensional factor in the sense of coherence, as opposed to the two or three-factor structure. The SOC-9 has considerable promise as a brief measure of SOC in substance abuse assessment and treatment settings.
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