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We study the stochastic cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation (SNLS) with an additive noise on the one-dimensional torus. In particular, we prove local well-posedness of the (renormalized) SNLS when the noise is almost space–time white noise. We also discuss a notion of criticality in this stochastic context, comparing the situation with the stochastic cubic heat equation (also known as the stochastic quantization equation).
Why do Chinese traders along the China–North Korea border turn to informal trade, and what does it provide for them? Using a unique set of interviews with Chinese formal and informal traders operating in North Korea, we argue that the strategies of informal trade are a calculated response to certain types of risk. In doing so, we introduce a typology of risks and the mechanisms by which informal trade allows traders to mitigate those risks. Because informal traders bypass trade regulations and border checkpoints, they are able to mitigate risk more cheaply than formal traders in some cases and can overcome barriers that can cause failure in formal trade. Informal traders can thus maintain trade in many circumstances, including across North Korean personnel instability and policy reversals, Chinese sanctions enforcement, and delays and smuggling crackdowns on both sides of the border.
Binder-free three-dimensional Co3O4 electrodes are fabricated by an economical and scalable one-step flame combustion method, namely Reactive Spray Deposition Technology. The electrodes are composed of porous nanostructured Co3O4 uniformly distributed throughout the conductive substrate. In the absence of any further optimization on the processing conditions, the as-synthesized electrodes demonstrate high capacitance of 567 F g−1 at 1.5 A g−1, excellent rate capability, and stable cycling performance with a capacity retention ratio of 96.7% after 1000 charge/discharge cycles from the three-electrode half-cell testing. This study presents the pathway to a significantly simplified manufacturing process of three-dimensional electrodes with the desirable porous nanostructure.
Lanthanum zirconate (La2Zr2O7) nano-crystalline films with cubic structure have been successfully prepared by a facile synthesis approach called reactive spray deposition technology (RSDT). La2Zr2O7 nanoparticles are produced by combusting a precursor solution of lanthanum acetylacetonate hydrate and zirconium acetylacetonate dissolved in an organic solvent mixture. The nanoparticles formed during the combustion process are directly deposited onto the substrate. The composition and microstructure of the as-deposited films are extensively characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The thermal diffusivities of the films are investigated by the means of laser flash method.
Developing countries have for decades been trying to catch up with the industrialized high-income countries, but only a few have succeeded. Historically, structural transformation has been a powerful engine of growth and job creation. Traditional development aid is inadequate to address the bottlenecks for structural transformation, and is hence ineffective. In this book, Justin Yifu Lin and Yan Wang use the theoretical foundations of New Structural Economics to examine South-South development aid and cooperation from the angle of structural transformation. By studying the successful economic transformation of countries such as China and South Korea through 'multiple win' solutions based on comparative advantages and economy of scale, and by presenting new ideas and different perspectives from emerging market economies such as Brazil, India and other BRICS countries, they bring a new narrative to broaden the ongoing discussions of post-2015 development aid and cooperation as well as the definitions of aid and cooperation.