To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The International Federation for Emergency Medicine (IFEM) Ultrasound Special Interest Group (USIG) was tasked with development of a hierarchical consensus approach to the use of point of care ultrasound (PoCUS) in patients with hypotension and cardiac arrest.
The IFEM USIG invited 24 recognized international leaders in PoCUS from emergency medicine and critical care to form an expert panel to develop the sonography in hypotension and cardiac arrest (SHoC) protocol. The panel was provided with reported disease incidence, along with a list of recommended PoCUS views from previously published protocols and guidelines. Using a modified Delphi methodology the panel was tasked with integrating the disease incidence, their clinical experience and their knowledge of the medical literature to evaluate what role each view should play in the proposed SHoC protocol.
Consensus on the SHoC protocols for hypotension and cardiac arrest was reached after three rounds of the modified Delphi process. The final SHoC protocol and operator checklist received over 80% consensus approval. The IFEM-approved final protocol, recommend Core, Supplementary, and Additional PoCUS views. SHoC-hypotension core views consist of cardiac, lung, and inferior vena vaca (IVC) views, with supplementary cardiac views, and additional views when clinically indicated. Subxiphoid or parasternal cardiac views, minimizing pauses in chest compressions, are recommended as core views for SHoC-cardiac arrest; supplementary views are lung and IVC, with additional views when clinically indicated. Both protocols recommend use of the “4 F” approach: fluid, form, function, filling.
An international consensus on sonography in hypotension and cardiac arrest is presented. Future prospective validation is required.
To meet a critical and growing need for a standardized approach to emergency point of care ultrasound (PoCUS) worldwide, emergency physicians must be trained to deliver and teach this skill in an accepted and reliable format. Currently, there is no globally recognized, standard PoCUS curriculum that defines the accepted applications, as well as standards for training and practice of PoCUS by specialists and trainees in emergency medicine. To address this deficit, the International Federation for Emergency Medicine (IFEM) convened a sub-committee of international experts in PoCUS to outline a curriculum for training of specialists in emergency PoCUS. This curriculum document represents the consensus of recommendations by this sub-committee. The curriculum is designed to provide a framework for PoCUS education in emergency medicine.
The focus is on the processes required to select core and enhanced applications, as well as the key elements required for the delivery of PoCUS training from introduction through to continuing professional development and skill maintenance. It is designed not to be prescriptive but to assist educators and emergency medicine leadership to advance PoCUS education in emergency medicine no matter the training venue. The content of this curriculum is relevant not just for communities with mature emergency medicine systems but in particular for developing nations or for nations seeking to develop PoCUS training programs within the current educational structure. We anticipate that there will be wide variability in how this curriculum is implemented and taught, reflecting the existing educational environment, resources and goals of educational programs.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.