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Experiments were performed within Sandia National Labs’ Multiphase Shock Tube to measure and quantify the shock-induced dispersal of a shock/dense particle curtain interaction. Following interaction with a planar travelling shock wave, schlieren imaging at 75 kHz was used to track the upstream and downstream edges of the curtain. Data were obtained for two particle diameter ranges (
) across Mach numbers ranging from 1.24 to 2.02. Using these data, along with data compiled from the literature, the dispersion of a dense curtain was studied for multiple Mach numbers (1.2–2.6), particle sizes (
) and volume fractions (9–32 %). Data were non-dimensionalized according to two different scaling methods found within the literature, with time scales defined based on either particle propagation time or pressure ratio across a reflected shock. The data show that spreading of the particle curtain is a function of the volume fraction, with the effectiveness of each time scale based on the proximity of a given curtain’s volume fraction to the dilute mixture regime. It is seen that volume fraction corrections applied to a traditional particle propagation time scale result in the best collapse of the data between the two time scales tested here. In addition, a constant-thickness regime has been identified, which has not been noted within previous literature.
The development of the unsteady pressure field on the floor of a rectangular cavity was studied at Mach 0.9 using high-frequency pressure-sensitive paint. Power spectral amplitudes at each cavity resonance exhibit a spatial distribution with a streamwise-oscillatory pattern; additional maxima and minima appear as the mode number is increased. This spatial distribution also appears in the propagation velocity of modal pressure disturbances. This behaviour was tied to the superposition of a downstream-propagating shear-layer disturbance and an upstream-propagating acoustic wave of different amplitudes and convection velocities, consistent with the classical Rossiter model. The summation of these waves generates a net downstream-travelling wave whose amplitude and phase velocity are modulated by a fixed envelope within the cavity. This travelling-wave interpretation of the Rossiter model correctly predicts the instantaneous modal pressure behaviour in the cavity. Subtle spanwise variations in the modal pressure behaviour were also observed, which could be attributed to a shift in the resonance pattern as a result of spillage effects at the edges of the finite-width cavity.
The resonance modes in Mach 0.94 turbulent flow over a cavity having a length-to-depth ratio of five were explored using time-resolved particle image velocimetry (TR-PIV) and time-resolved pressure sensitive paint (TR-PSP). Mode switching was quantified in the velocity field simultaneous with the pressure field. As the mode number increased from one through three, the resonance activity moved from a region downstream within the recirculation region to areas further upstream in the shear layer, an observation consistent with linear stability analysis. The second and third modes contained organized structures associated with shear layer vortices. Coherent structures occurring in the velocity field during modes two and three exhibited a clear modulation in size with streamwise distance. The streamwise periodicity was attributable to the interference of downstream-propagating vortical disturbances with upstream-travelling acoustic waves. The coherent structure oscillations were approximately
out of phase with the modal surface pressure fluctuations, analogous to a standing wave. Modal propagation (or phase) velocities, based on cross-correlations of bandpass-filtered velocity fields were found for each mode. The phase velocities also showed streamwise periodicity and were greatest at regions of maximum constructive interference where coherent structures were the largest. Overall, the phase velocities increased with modal frequency, which coincided with the modal activity residing at higher portions of the cavity where the local mean flow velocity was elevated. Together, the TR-PIV and TR-PSP provide unique details not only on the distribution of modal activity throughout the cavity, but also new understanding of the resonance mechanism as observed in the velocity field.
The influence of compressibility on the shear layer over a rectangular cavity of variable width has been studied in a free stream Mach number range of 0.6–2.5 using particle image velocimetry data in the streamwise centre plane. As the Mach number increases, the vertical component of the turbulence intensity diminishes modestly in the widest cavity, but the two narrower cavities show a more substantial drop in all three components as well as the turbulent shear stress. This contrasts with canonical free shear layers, which show significant reductions in only the vertical component and the turbulent shear stress due to compressibility. The vorticity thickness of the cavity shear layer grows rapidly as it initially develops, then transitions to a slower growth rate once its instability saturates. When normalized by their estimated incompressible values, the growth rates prior to saturation display the classic compressibility effect of suppression as the convective Mach number rises, in excellent agreement with comparable free shear layer data. The specific trend of the reduction in growth rate due to compressibility is modified by the cavity width.
To develop a cationic UV curable, tough fouling-release coating for marine vessels, a difunctional oxetane monomer was used to copolymerize with the epoxy-siloxane oligomer at loading levels from 10% to 40% wt.. The resulting coatings showed enhanced solvent resistance, impact resistance and modulus, while remained hydrophobic before and after immersion in artificial sea water. In marine microorganism bioassay, these oxetane toughened coatings showed no leachate toxicity and the coating surfaces were non-toxic to biofilm growth. The fouling removal performance for these coatings was found to be microorganism dependent. Live barnacle reattachment assay showed that the toughened coatings had a removal force comparable to the reference silicone coatings Dow Corning T2 and 3140.
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