This article discusses recent studies of piezotronics and piezo-phototronics of two-dimensional (2D) materials. Two-dimensional semiconductor materials have demonstrated excellent electronic and optoelectronic properties, and these ultrathin materials are candidates for next-generation devices. Among 2D semiconductors, transition-metal dichalcogenides in particular have large in-place piezoelectricity due to the noncentrosymmetry along the armchair direction. A strong coupling of piezoelectric and semiconducting properties has been reported for Schottky contacts and p–n junctions, even in single-layer materials. Since the carrier concentration of ultrathin 2D materials can be easily modulated by external piezocharges, layered composites of ferroelectric/2D materials also show promising piezotronic and piezo-phototronic properties.