Galactic-scale studies of γ-rays and sub-mm radiation suggest that a significant amount of neutral interstellar medium is not detectable either in CO or HI (Grenier et al. 2005; Ade et al. 2011). This component is called “dark gas”. Here we argue that cool and dense atomic gas without molecules is responsible for the dark gas. This interpretation is supported by a recent finding of cool HI gas corresponding to the TeV γ-ray shell in the SNR RX J1713.7-3946 (Fukui et al. 2011). Such HI gas is not recognized under a usual assumption of optically thin HI emission but is identified by a careful analysis considering optically thick HI. The typical column density of such HI gas is a few times 1021 cm−2 and is also identified as visual extinction.