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Interface states produced at the interface between an insulator and GaN semiconductor determine the performance of GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) field effect transistors. Therefore, it is important to know details of interface states characteristics to improve device performances. For above purpose, we have fabricated GaN MIS capacitors, then carried out capacitance-voltage (CV) and deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements, and analyzed the obtained results in detail.Wafers used in this study were n-type GaN grown on sapphire substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. A film of SiN was deposited as an insulating layer using electron-cyclotron-resonance plasma-assisted deposition at room temperature, then samples were annealed at 400, 600 or 800°C in N2 atmosphere for 10 min.CV measurements were performed for all the samples at various frequencies and bias sweep rates in the dark condition. CV curves of all the samples exhibited ledges in the curves. Here, ledge indicates a region of which capacitance is independent of applied bias. Although each sample was annealed at each different temperature, it was observed at the same surface potential for all the samples. This result indicates that the Fermi level of the GaN/SiN interface is pinned by a particular trap. In addition, the shape of the CV curve depended on both frequency and bias sweep rate, and it was not observed in the results obtained by a quasi-static capacitance voltage measurement. This can be explained that the shape of ledge is determined by the quasi-equilibrium between a filling rate of traps and a bias sweep rate or test frequency.
In the positive bias region of the ledge, a hysteresis window of the CV curve had some dependence on frequency but little dependence on bias sweep rate. On the other hand, in the negative bias region of the ledge, it had little dependence on frequency but obvious dependence on bias sweep rate. These dependences indicate two different traps and related to the ledge formation. The trap energy level related to the sweep rate dependence is estimated to be 0.34 eV by the temperature dependence of the width of hysteresis window.
Deep level transient spectroscopy measurements were carried out to characterize the trap levels observed in the CV curves. Trap levels with activation energies of 0.32 and 0.78 eV were observed . The former is almost equal to 0.34 eV obtained from the temperature dependence of the width of hysteresis window. The latter is similar to the interface trap reported by Nakano et al., which is considered to be originated from the complexes of Si and surface defect . E. Shibata et al., Ext. Abstracts 2008 IMFEDK, Osaka, pp.69-70. (2008). Y. Nakano and T. Jimbo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4756 (2002).
For further improvements in AlGaN/GaN heterojunction field-effect transistor performance (HFET), it is necessary to reduce the leakage current of the GaN buffer layer. We found a correlation between the leakage current and the intensity of the yellow luminescence of GaN layers taken by UV lamp excitation. The GaN layers were grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition on SiC substrates. When the samples were excited by a UV (365 nm) lamp, visible yellow luminescence was observed. The leakage current of the GaN buffer layer was measured after deposition of ohmic metal contact. We confirmed clear correlation between the leakage current and the luminescence intensity based from result that the samples with the larger leakage current showed the stronger luminescence intensity. This correlation gives us useful information to understand the drain-source leakage current of AlGaN/GaN HFET.
Current-voltage (IV) measurements and capacitance-voltage (CV) measurements have been carried out to investigate electrical properties of AlGaN/GaN-HEMT structures. By CV measurements of Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) with large leak currents, we observed a distinct peak in CV profiling at low frequencies. The integral of this peak was found to have a correlation with a leak current. The behavior of this peak might be described by the Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) model if we assume this peak is due to a phenomenon of an electron emission and capture by deep levels. Then Quasi-Fermi Level (Imref) at the bias point where this peak appears in CV profiling corresponds to energy depth of deep levels. That energy level can be approximated by Imref of two-dimensional (2D) electron gas. The result of our samples showed that the energy depth of deep levels from the conduction band is distributed from 320meV to 470meV for Al mole fraction from 0.19 to 0.30, respectively.
We fabricated a light-emitting diode (LED) having a nitride-rich GaN1-xPx single quantum well (SQW) structure grown using laser-assisted metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (LA-MOCVD). The peak energy of the electroluminescence (EL) of the LED was 2.88 eV, which is in the vicinity of the energy due to the recombination of the bounding exciton by P atoms, known as an isoelectronic trap in GaN. We observed a blue shift of this peak by increasing the drive current. We also observed extra emission of band-to-band recombination at about 3.4 eV above a drive current of 32 mA, where the external quantum efficiency was already saturated.
The growth of GaNP using laser-assisted metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (LA-MOCVD) was carried out for the fabrication of a light-emitting diode (LED). We used an Ar-F laser in order to decompose the source gases at lower temperatures. Trimethylgallium (TMG), ammonia (NH3) and tertialybuthylphosphine (TBP) were used for the growth. GaNP growth was carried out at different temperatures. After that, annealing was carried out at 1273-1373 K to improve the crystal quality.
As a result, N-rich GaNP could be grown at 1123-1223 K. The surface morphologies of GaNP were improved when the growth temperature was increased to above 1173 K. We investigated the photoluminescence (PL) of GaNP. The band-edge emission of GaNP was observed at 77 K upon applying thermal annealing at 1323 K. This peak shifted to about 0.2 eV compared with the GaN band-edge emission. Furthermore, a GaNP LED was fabricated and the electoluminescence spectra were investigated. The band-edge emission at 420 nm was observed.
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