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Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important public health concern because of the high mortality rate of young people and a high proportion among the trauma. According to studies, patients visiting the emergency department (ED) with TBI comprise 1.4% of all ED patients.
The authors think that the characteristics of patients with TBI will vary according to the age group. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the clinical and social characteristics of patients with TBI visiting the ED by age group.
Trauma patients who conducted brain CT at the ED of Korean University Hospital (three hospitals) for 3 years from March 2013 to February 2016 were enrolled. Medical records were investigated retrospectively. The GCS scores were estimated at initial ED arrival. The primary outcome was to determine the characteristics of each age groups with gender, severity (by GSC score), trauma mechanism, and admission rate.
A total of 15,567 TBI patients received brain CT evaluation during the investigation period. Based on age, patients in their 50s were the most common (16.5%). Regarding the severity, the ratio of mild was higher in under patients under 9 (99.3%); the ratio of severe was higher for patients in their 20s (4.6%). In almost every age group, the male ratio of TBI was higher, except for females aged 70 or older. Under 19 years of age, the ambulance utilization rate was lower than any other age group. The most common injury mechanism was a collision, the next was a traffic accident, and in under 9, a fall was the most common. 70.1% of patients returned home after treatments.
Identifying the characteristics of patients with TBI visiting ED is fundamental. Therefore, it is necessary to continuously collect basic data on TBI among patients visiting the ED.
Given that only a subgroup of patients with schizophrenia responds to first-line antipsychotic drugs, a key clinical question is what underlies treatment response. Observations that prefrontal activity correlates with striatal dopaminergic function, have led to the hypothesis that disrupted frontostriatal functional connectivity (FC) could be associated with altered dopaminergic function. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between frontostriatal FC and striatal dopamine synthesis capacity in patients with schizophrenia who had responded to first-line antipsychotic drug compared with those who had failed but responded to clozapine.
Twenty-four symptomatically stable patients with schizophrenia were recruited from Seoul National University Hospital, 12 of which responded to first-line antipsychotic drugs (first-line AP group) and 12 under clozapine (clozapine group), along with 12 matched healthy controls. All participants underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and [18F]DOPA PET scans.
No significant difference was found in the total PANSS score between the patient groups. Voxel-based analysis showed a significant correlation between frontal FC to the associative striatum and the influx rate constant of [18F]DOPA in the corresponding region in the first-line AP group. Region-of-interest analysis confirmed the result (control group: R2 = 0.019, p = 0.665; first-line AP group: R2 = 0.675, p < 0.001; clozapine group: R2 = 0.324, p = 0.054) and the correlation coefficients were significantly different between the groups.
The relationship between striatal dopamine synthesis capacity and frontostriatal FC is different between responders to first-line treatment and clozapine treatment in schizophrenia, indicating that a different pathophysiology could underlie schizophrenia in patients who respond to first-line treatments relative to those who do not.
A life-threatening cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)-related injury can cause recurrent arrest after return of circulation. Such injuries are difficult to identify during resuscitation, and their contribution to failed resuscitation can be missed given the limitations of conventional CPR. Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR), increasingly being considered for selected patients with potentially reversible etiology of arrest, may identify previously occult CPR-related injuries by restoring arterial pressure and flow. Herein, we describe two cases of severe CPR-related injuries contributing to recurrent arrest. Each case had ECPR implemented within 60 minutes of the start of CPR. After the presumed cardiac etiology had been addressed with percutaneous coronary intervention, life-threatening cardiovascular injuries with recurrent arrest were noted, and resuscitative thoracotomy was performed under ECPR. One patient survived to hospital discharge.
ECPR may provide an opportunity to identify and correct severe resuscitation-related injuries causing recurrent arrest. Chest compression depth >6 cm, especially in older women, may contribute to these injuries.
Semi-insulating undoped GaN films were grown based on controlling the size of the nucleation sites through a special two-step growth method: First, 16 nm LT-GaN was annealed at 950 ° with a ramping time of 4 min, then the GaN was grown at this temperature for 1 min. Second, the growth temperature was increased to 1020° with a ramping time of 2 min and the GaN layer finally grown at 1020 ° for 40 min. The film grown by this sequence exhibited sheet resistance of up to 109 Ω/sq with mirror-like surface morphology. By slow ramping to 950° in the initial phase of growth, smaller grain sizes and higher nuclei densities were formed and the columnar growth mode along the c direction was dominant. The observation of higher resistance in two-step growth is believed due to the increased misorientation of nuclei when the growth proceeds during temperature ramping to 1020°. The fabricated saw filter on semi-insulating GaN exhibited a high velocity of 5342 m/s at center frequencies of 133.57 MHz and an electromechanical coupling coefficient(k2) of about 0.763 %, which was enhanced due to the improvement of surface morphology with high sheet resistance by the two- step ramping technique.
The liquid phase plasma reduction method has been applied to prepare silver nanoparticles from a solution of silver nitrate (AgNO3) using a bipolar pulsed electrical discharge system. The excited states of atomic silver, hydrogen and oxygen as well as the molecular bands of hydroxyl radicals were detected in the emission spectra. As the discharge duration increased up to 10 min, silver particle peaks produced by surface plasmon absorption were observed around 430 nm. Both the particle size and the particle numbers were observed to increase with the length of the plasma treatment time and with the initial AgNO3 concentration. Spherical nanoparticles of about 5–20 nm in size were obtained with the discharging time of 5 min, whereas aggregates of nanoparticles of about 10–50 nm in size were mainly produced with the discharging time of 20 min. The cationic surfactant of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) added with the CTAB/AgNO3 molar ratio of 30% was shown to inhibit nanoparticle aggregation.
We previously demonstrated that the chronic consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) promotes lung and liver metastases of 4T1 mammary carcinoma cells in obesity-resistant BALB/c mice. To examine early transcriptional responses to tumour progression in the liver and lungs of HFD-fed mice, 4-week-old female BALB/c mice were divided into four groups: sham-injected, control diet (CD)-fed; sham-injected, HFD-fed (SH); 4T1 cell-injected, CD-fed (TC); 4T1 cell-injected, HFD-fed (TH). Following 16 weeks of either a CD or HFD, 4T1 cells were injected into the mammary fat pads of mice in the TC and TH groups and all mice were continuously fed identical diets. At 14 d post-injection, RNA was isolated from hepatic and pulmonary tissues for microarray analysis of mRNA expression. Functional annotation and core network analyses were conducted for the TH/SH Unique gene set. Inflammation in hepatic tissues and cell mitosis in pulmonary tissues were the most significant biological functions in the TH/SH Unique gene set. The biological core networks of the hepatic TH/SH Unique gene set were characterised as those genes involved in the activation of acute inflammatory responses (Orm1, Lbp, Hp and Cfb), disordered lipid metabolism and deregulated cell cycle progression. Networks of the pulmonary Unique gene set displayed the deregulation of cell cycle progression (Cdc20, Cdk1 and Bub1b). These HFD-influenced alterations may have led to favourable conditions for the formation of both pro-inflammatory and pro-mitotic microenvironments in the target organs that promote immune cell infiltration and differentiation, as well as the infiltration and proliferation of metastatic tumour cells.
Fluorescent dyes including Nile Red (NR), fluorescein, rhodamine and 4- (dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM) derivatives were investigated to find an application for the organic light emitting device (OLED). Relationship between the molecular structure and optical property was calculated by ab initio (HF and DFT/6-31G*) and semiempirical (AM1/PM3 and INDO/S) calculation methods for the geometry optimization and for the information of electronic transition, respectively. The absorption maximum and the oscillator strength of molecules strongly depended on the molecular dipole moment, especially for the molecules having both strong electron donor and acceptor group. Since the calculated results were comparable with several experimental results, these semiempirical molecular orbital calculation methods could be used as a powerful prediction tool for optical properties of the luminescent molecules.
A new excimer laser recrystallization method of amorphous silicon is proposed to increase the grain size and control the grain boundary locations in polycrystalline silicon films. The proposed method is based on the lateral grain growth which occurs at the interface between molten and unmolten regions. To obtain selectively molten regions, the proposed method employs aluminum patterns on amorphous silicon. The aluminum patterns act as the beam shield during the laser irradiation as well as the lateral heat sink during the solidification period. The high reflectance of aluminum at the wavelength of XeCl excimer laser offers stable beam shielding property, and the high thermal conductivity enhances the lateral heat flow by the quick draining of laterally propagated heat. TEM observation has revealed that the well arranged large grains were successfully obtained.
We have proposed and fabricated a new poly-Si TFT that employs selectively doped regions between the source and drain in order to reduce leakage current without the sacrifice of the on current. In the proposed poly-Si TFTs, the selectively doped regions where doping concentration is identical to that of source/drain, reduce the effective channel length during the on state. Under the off state, the selectively doped regions may reduce the lateral electric field induced in the depletion region near drain so that the leakage current reduces considerably. The experimental data of the proposed TFT shows that it has the high on-current, low leakage current and low threshold voltage when compared with conventional TFT. The fabrication steps for the proposed TFT are reduced because ion-implantation for source/drain and selectively doped regions is performed simultaneously prior to an excimer laser irradiation. It should be noted that, in the proposed TFT, only one excimer laser annealing is required while two excimer laser annealing steps are required in conventional TFT.
In order to investigate the reason for the higher capacity of the interpenetrating isoreticular metal-organic frameworks (IRMOFs) at lower temperatures, we performed grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations and molecular dynamics simulations at 77 K for a set of the interpenetrating IRMOF-11 and the non-interpenetrating counterpart IRMOF-12. From the GCMC simulations, we found universal force field (UFF) is better for describing the hydrogen adsorption behavior than DREIDING force field. The results from the molecular dynamics simulations showed the density of adsorbed hydrogen molecules was increased in the various pores created by the catenation of IRMOF comparing to that of the pores in IRMOF-12. Moreover, the adsorbed hydrogen molecules in IRMOF-11 have the smaller diffusion coefficients. It means that their dynamic behavior is more restricted because of the complexity of the interpenetrating network of IRMOF-11. These results of molecular simulations show the small pores created by the catenation are important for the increase of hydrogen adsorption on IRMOF-11 at lower temperatures.
The strain relaxation mechanism via the homogeneous nucleation of misfit dislocations from interface during interdiffusion in lattice-matched semiconductor heterostructures has been investigated. Transmission electron microscopy studies in intermixed GaInAsP/InP heterostructures revealed that the critical interdiffusion depth for the nucleation of 90° 1/6<112> partial dislocations from a tensile interface is much shallower than that of 60° 1/2<110> perfect dislocations from a compressive interface. A critical thickness model for the interface nucleation of these dislocations is developed as a modification of the classical surface nucleation'model.
A new processing method, the Mixalloy process, has been developed to process alloys with novel microstructures and compositions. In this process, microstructural control is achieved through the use of turbulent mixing of liquid metals in addition to controlling solidification rate and chemical composition. Boride dispersion strengthened copper alloys were produced using the Mixalloy process. Thermally stable and fine (average less than 100 nm) boride dispersoids were formed by in-situ chemical reaction in the copper alloy matrices during mixing. The uniform mixture of the matrix and dispersoids was then rapidly solidified to maintain the fine microstructure. The consolidated material shows exceptional thermal stability and an excellent combination of strength, ductility, and electrical conductivity. Furthermore, the flexibility of the process allows the matrices of these dispersion strengthened coppers to be easily alloyed to fulfill specific needs. The versatility and simplicity of the Mixalloy process provide an economical alternative to other processing means in the manufacturing of high performance alloys such as dispersion strengthened alloys.
RF MEMS(Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System) switch technology is one of powerful solution for future RF systems. This technology provides low insertion loss, High linearity and broad bandwidth. Wide driving membrane used MEMS switch can reduce driving voltage but it is easy to bend because of the stress gradient. In order to solve this problem we fabricated Au cantilever in various sputtering condition and various substrate materials. As a result of this experiment, we fabricated cantilever which was bent within 1 um, with 2 um thickness and 340 um length. We applied this condition to RF MEMS switch and we fabricated switch membrane within 1 um bend, under 10MPa stress gradient.
Strip-shaped diamond-tip field emitter array was fabricated by using the transfer mold technique. The sharp turn-on characteristic was observed from the current-voltage measurement of the fabricated diamond-tip field emitter array. The turn-on characteristic of the diamond-tip field emitter array was compared with that of a flat diamond film. High emission current density was obtained from the diamond-tip field emitter array. The threshold voltage of the diamond-tip field emitter array was lower than that of a flat diamond film.
Anew excimer laser recrystallization method of a-Si film to increase the grain size of poly-Si film has been proposed. Excimer laser energy was locally modulated by being irradiated on stepped substrate with 500 nm deep trench on which a-Si film was deposited. Fairly large poly-Si grains (over 1 µm) were obtained due to lateral thermal gradient which resulted from the laser energy difference on the vertical wall and on the horizontal bottom plane of the trench without altering laser energy density elaborately.
Uniform and reproducible silicon tip arrays were fabricated using the reactive ion etching followed by the re-oxidation sharpening. Molybdenum was then coated on the some of the silicon tip array. Current-voltage characteristics and current fluctuations were measured in the high vacuum environment. Field emission currents were proved by the Fowler-Nordheim plot studies.
Self-sensing and interfacial evaluation were investigated with different dispersion solvents for single carbon fiber/carbon nanotube (CNT)-epoxy composites by electro-micromechanical technique and acoustic emission (AE) under loading/subsequent unloading. Optimized dispersion procedure was set up to obtain improved mechanical and electrical properties. Apparent modulus and electrical contact resistivity for CNT-epoxy composites were correlated with different dispersion solvents for CNT. CNT-epoxy composites using good dispersion solvent showed higher apparent modulus because of better stress transferring effect due to relatively uniform dispersion of CNT in epoxy and enhanced interfacial adhesion between CNT and epoxy matrix. However, good solvent showed high apparent modulus but low thermodynamic work of adhesion, Wa for single carbon microfiber/CNT-epoxy composite. It is because hydrophobic high advanced contact angle was shown in good solvent, which can not be compatible with carbon microfiber well. Damage sensing was also detected simultaneously by AE combined with electrical resistance measurement. Electrical resistivity increased stepwise with progressing fiber fracture due to the maintaining numerous electrical contact by CNT.