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The Eighth World Congress of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery (WCPCCS) will be held in Washington DC, USA, from Saturday, 26 August, 2023 to Friday, 1 September, 2023, inclusive. The Eighth World Congress of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery will be the largest and most comprehensive scientific meeting dedicated to paediatric and congenital cardiac care ever held. At the time of the writing of this manuscript, The Eighth World Congress of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery has 5,037 registered attendees (and rising) from 117 countries, a truly diverse and international faculty of over 925 individuals from 89 countries, over 2,000 individual abstracts and poster presenters from 101 countries, and a Best Abstract Competition featuring 153 oral abstracts from 34 countries. For information about the Eighth World Congress of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery, please visit the following website: [www.WCPCCS2023.org]. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the activities related to global health and advocacy that will occur at the Eighth World Congress of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery.
Acknowledging the need for urgent change, we wanted to take the opportunity to bring a common voice to the global community and issue the Washington DC WCPCCS Call to Action on Addressing the Global Burden of Pediatric and Congenital Heart Diseases. A copy of this Washington DC WCPCCS Call to Action is provided in the Appendix of this manuscript. This Washington DC WCPCCS Call to Action is an initiative aimed at increasing awareness of the global burden, promoting the development of sustainable care systems, and improving access to high quality and equitable healthcare for children with heart disease as well as adults with congenital heart disease worldwide.
Efficacy of sildenafil in treating paediatric pulmonary arterial hypertension is controversial. This systematic review aimed to explore the safety and effect of sildenafil on treating paediatric pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) through meta-analysis.
Methods and results:
In this study, the electronic databases, including the Cochran Library database, EMBASE, and MEDLINE were systemically retrieved to identify the related randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Two reviewers had independently completed study selection, data collection, and assessment of the bias risk. Amongst 938 articles researched according to our retrieval strategy, 15 papers that involved 673 cases had been screened. Relative to control group, the sildenafil group had markedly reduced mortality (RR = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.12–0.51; p < 0.0001), but difference within the mortality was not statistically significant between high- and low-dose sildenafil groups (p = 0.152). Nonetheless, difference of the mean pulmonary arterial pressure between sildenafil as well as control group was of no statistical significance. Differences in the length of hospital stay and the incidences of pulmonary hypertensive crisis between children with PAH and controls were of no statistical significance. However, the summary estimate favoured that sildenafil reduced the duration of mechanical ventilation time, as well as the length of ICU stay and inotropic support.
Sildenafil therapy reduces the mortality of PAH patients, but its effects on the haemodynamic outcomes and other clinical outcomes are still unclear.
Postural tachycardia syndrome is defined by a heart rate increment of 40 beats/minute (bpm) (or a heart rate that exceeds 125 bpm) within 10 minutes of change from the supine position to an upright position in the absence of obvious orthostatic hypotension. There are multiple pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie postural tachycardia syndrome, including peripheral denervation, β-receptor supersensitivity, hypovolaemia, and impaired muscle pump. Some children afflicted with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome and hypovolaemic dysregulation have been found to have perturbed renin–angiotensin–aldosterone profile, disturbed vascular endothelial function, and abnormal vasodilation. The hyperadrenergic state in some postural tachycardia syndrome patients is likely a driver for orthostatic tachycardia. Other mechanisms include the presence of treatable autonomic neuropathies. An understanding of these pathophysiological mechanisms might be helpful for the effective treatment of postural tachycardia syndrome.
The aim of the present study was to explore the predictive value of red cell distribution width as a means to differentiate between neurally mediated syncope and arrhythmic syncope in children.
Patients were divided into a neurally mediated syncope group (n=72) and an arrhythmic syncope group (n=21) on the basis of clinical history, results of the head-up tilt test, electrocardiography, and 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiography. As controls, we recruited 55 healthy children. Red cell distribution width was determined for children in all groups. A receiver operating characteristic curve was drawn to study the predictive effect of red cell distribution width to differentiate between neurally mediated syncope and arrhythmic syncope.
Red cell distribution width was significantly higher in children with neurally mediated syncope than in children with arrhythmic syncope and the control group. A receiver operating characteristic curve on the predictive value of red cell distribution width in differentiating neurally mediated syncope from arrhythmic syncope showed that the area under the curve was 0.841 (95% confidence interval: 0.737–0.945, p<0.05). A red cell distribution width value of 12.8% as the cut-off value yielded a sensitivity of 80.6% and a specificity of 76.2% in discriminating between patients with neurally mediated syncope and arrhythmic syncope.
Red cell distribution width value of ⩾12.8% might be a useful adjunct for primary-care physicians to differentiate neurally mediated syncope from arrhythmic syncope in children.
To determine the optimal drug therapy for intravenous immunoglobulin-resistant Kawasaki disease.
Studies regarding drug therapy for intravenous immunoglobulin-resistant Kawasaki disease were selected from medical electronic databases including PubMed, Medline, Elsevier, and Springer Link. The effectiveness in terms of temperature recovery and coronary artery damage was compared between a second intravenous immunoglobulin treatment and glucocorticosteroid treatment for children with intravenous immunoglobulin-resistant Kawasaki disease using meta-analysis with Review Manager 5.3 software. Indices to evaluate the effects were body temperature, biomarker levels, and coronary artery lesions detected by echocardiography. Results are reported as relative risks or odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval and p<0.05.
Meta-analysis included 52 patients in the second intravenous immunoglobulin treatment group and 75 patients in the glucocorticosteroid treatment control group from four studies that met our inclusion criteria. Temperatures of patients who received glucocorticosteroid treatment were effectively controlled compared with those who received a second intravenous immunoglobulin treatment (relative risk=0.73, 95% confidence interval: 0.58–0.92, p=0.007). There were no differences, however, in the incidence of coronary artery lesions between the two groups (odds ratio=1.55, 95% confidence interval: 0.57–4.20, p=0.39).
Glucocorticosteroids are more effective in controlling body temperature compared with intravenous immunoglobulin re-treatment in intravenous immunoglobulin-resistant Kawasaki disease children; however, glucocorticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulin re-treatment showed no difference in the prevention of coronary artery lesions.
Background: Postural tachycardia syndrome and vasovagal syncope are common causes of orthostatic intolerance in children. The supplementation with water, or salt, or midodrine, or β-blocker was applied to children with postural tachycardia syndrome or vasovagal syncope. However, the efficacy of such medication varied and was not satisfied. This review aimed to summarise the current biomarkers in the treatment of the diseases. Data sources: Studies were collected from online electronic databases, including OVID Medline, PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and associated references. The main areas assessed in the included studies were clinical improvement, the cure rate, and the individualised treatment for postural tachycardia syndrome and vasovagal syncope in children. Results: Haemodynamic change during head-up tilt test, and detection of 24-hour urinary sodium excretion, flow-mediated vasodilation, erythrocytic H2S, and plasma pro-adrenomedullin as biological markers were the new ways that were inexpensive, non-invasive, and easy to test for finding those who would be suitable for a specific drug and treatment. Conclusion: With the help of biomarkers, the therapeutic efficacy was greatly increased for children with postural tachycardia syndrome and vasovagal syncope.
This study aimed at examining three tilt angle-based positive responses and the time to positive response in a head-up tilt test for children with orthostatic intolerance, and the psychological fear experienced at the three angles during head-up tilt test. A total of 174 children, including 76 boys and 98 girls, aged from 4 to 18 years old (mean 11.3±2.8 years old), with unexplained syncope, were randomly divided into three groups, to undergo head-up tilt test at the angles of 60°, 70° and 80°, respectively. The diagnostic rates and times were analysed, and Wong–Baker face pain rating scale was used to access the children’s psychological fear. There were no significant differences in diagnostic rates of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome and vasovagal syncope at different tilt angles during the head-up tilt test (p>0.05). There was a significant difference, however, in the psychological fear at different tilt angles utilising the Kruskal–Wallis test (χ2=36.398, p<0.01). It was mildest at tilt angle 60° utilising the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test (p<0.01). A positive rank correlation was found between the psychological fear and the degree of tilt angle (rs=0.445, p<0.01). Positive response appearance time was 15.1±14.0 minutes at 60° for vasovagal syncope children. There was no significant difference in the time to positive response, at different tilt angles during the head-up tilt test for vasovagal syncope or for postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome. Hence, it is suggested that a tilt angle of 60° and head-up tilt test time of 45 minutes should be suitable for children with vasovagal syncope.
Objective: At present, the haemodynamic diagnosis of orthostatic intolerance is based mainly on the head-up tilt table test, which is sometimes risky for patients. Thus, it is important to find objective and safe methods to differentiate haemodynamic patterns of orthostatic intolerance cases. Methods: In all, 629 children with orthostatic intolerance, either vasovagal syncope or postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, were included in the multi-centre clinical study. We analysed the association between the clinical manifestation and haemodynamic patterns of the patients. Results: Syncope after motion with a prodrome of chest distress or palpitations and the concomitant symptom(s) after a syncopal attack, with debilitation, dizziness or headache, were the most important variables in predicting the diagnosis of vasovagal syncope. The overall diagnostic accuracy was 71.5%. Conclusion: Complaint of syncope after motion with prodromal chest distress or palpitation and the concomitant symptom after a syncopal attack, with subsequent debilitation, dizziness or headache, were the most important variables in the diagnosis of vasovagal syncope in children with orthostatic intolerance.
The present study was designed to analyse the usefulness of a modified Calgary score system during differential diagnosis between cardiac syncope and postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome-associated syncope through a large sample sized clinical investigation. The study included 213 children, including 101 boys and 112 girls, with cardiac syncope or postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome-associated syncope in the age group of 2–19 years (mean 11.8 ± 2.9 years). A modified Calgary score was created, which was analysed to predict differential diagnoses between cardiac syncope and postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome-associated syncope using a receiver operating characteristic curve. The median of modified Calgary scores for cardiac syncope was −5.0, which significantly differed from that of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (0.0; p < 0.01). The sensitivity and specificity of a differentiation score of less than −2.5 was 96.3% and 72.7%, respectively. Owing to the fact that the modified Calgary score was an integer, when less than −3.0 the diagnosis could be considered as cardiac syncope. The modified Calgary score could be used to make an initial differential diagnosis between cardiac syncope and postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome-associated syncope in the clinic.
This study was designed to investigate the value of history taking in identifying children with cardiac syncope, and to improve diagnostic efficiency and accuracy in children with cardiac syncope.
Methods and Results
We compared the characteristics of a group of children and adolescents with cardiac syncope at the Pediatric Syncope Unit of five hospitals in China with those with typical vasovagal syncope. We included a cohort of 275 patients in Pediatric Syncope Unit. A cardiac cause of syncope was established in 31 patients, autonomic-mediated reflex syncope in 214, non-syncopal attacks in 15, and in the remaining 15 the cause of syncope remained unexplained. Cardiac syncope was triggered by exercise, whereas vasovagal syncope by prolonged standing, warm-crowded place, and fear or pain emotion. Syncopal spells occurred at various positions in cardiac syncope. Children who had prodromal symptoms with cardiac syncope were significantly fewer than those with vasovagal syncope. Most children with cardiac syncope had history of abnormal electrocardiogram findings when compared with children suffering from vasovagal syncope. On multivariable analysis, history of abnormal electrocardiogram findings and exercise-triggered syncope were independent predictors of cardiac syncope.
Children and adolescents with a history of abnormal electrocardiogram findings and exercise-related syncope spells were at high risk for cardiac syncope.
There is limited data available on characteristics of profiles of lipids in children. The purpose of our investigation, therefore, was to determine the lipid profile, and analyze the prevalence of dyslipidaemia, in subgroups of children according to different gender, districts of residence, and ages in Beijing, China.
Methods and Results
We included 18,944 school children, aged from 7 to 18 years, in our community-based cross-sectional study, measuring the levels of total cholesterol and triglyceride in capillary blood, and at the same time determining their weight and height. Weights, heights, circumference at the waist, and body mass index proved to be significantly greater for the boys than the girls. The levels of total cholesterol of boys and girls were 3.98 ± 0.35, and 4.02 ± 0.35 mmol/L, respectively, while the comparable levels of triglycerides were 1.08 ± 0.52, and 1.18 ± 0.66 mmol/L, respectively. The percentages of hypercholesterolaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia, combined dyslipidaemia, and hyperlipidaemia were 1.2, 8.8, 0.4, and 9.7%, respectively. The incidences of hypertriglyceridaemia, combined dyslipidaemia, and hyperlipidaemia of girls were higher than boys. The levels of triglycerides for boys aged from 11 to 18 years living in an urban setting were higher than those for boys living in rural settings, as were the levels of total cholesterol for boys aged from 12 to 16 years.
Our study provides the newest current profiles of lipids for children living in Beijing. We found significant influences of age, districts of residence, and genders on the levels of lipids, features which need further attention in the prevention and treatment of dyslipidaemia.
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