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Birds in flight are prone to collide with various transparent or reflective structures. While bird–window collision has been recognised as a critical conservation issue, collision with other transparent structures has been less understood. Noise barriers made of transparent materials are considered critical hazards for birds; however, little is known about the bird mortality they cause. We conducted the first nationwide-scale estimates of bird-collision mortality caused by transparent noise barriers (TNBs) along roads in the Republic of Korea. The total length of existing roadside transparent noise barriers was estimated at 1,416 km nationwide (as of 2018), and it had been increasing exponentially. Based on carcass surveys at 25 sites, daily mortality at the observed barriers was 0.335 ± 1.132 birds/km on average, and no difference in observed mortality was detected between both sides of a single barrier and between road types (i.e. local roads and motorways). Finally, we estimated that approximately 186,000 birds (95% confidence interval: 162,465–204,812 birds) are killed annually by collisions with roadside TNBs. As privately installed barriers were not considered in this study, the actual mortality is likely be higher than our estimates. Thus, collision with TNBs could become an emerging threat to avian conservation, especially in developing and urbanising regions around the world. As such structures are not formally recognised as conservation issues of importance, more systematic surveys aided by citizen science, both for the status of TNBs and bird-collision mortality, are needed in addition to management and mitigation policies.
Background: After the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus outbreak in Korea in 2015, the government newly established the additional reimbursement for infection prevention to encourage infection control activities in the hospitals. The new policy was announced in December 2015 and was implemented in September 2016. We evaluated how infection control activities improved in hospitals after the change of government policy in Korea. Methods: Three cross-sectional surveys using the WHO Hand Hygiene Self-Assessment Framework (HHSAF) were conducted in 2013, 2015, and 2017. Using multivariable linear regression model including hospital characteristics, we analyzed the changes in total HHSAF scores according to the survey time. Results: In total, 32 hospitals participated in the survey in 2013, 52 in 2015, and 101 in 2017. The number of inpatient beds per infection control professionals decreased from 324 in 2013 to 303 in 2015 and 179 in 2017. Most hospitals were at intermediate or advanced levels of progress (90.6% in 2013, 86.6% in 2015, and 94.1% in 2017). In a multivariable linear regression model, the total HHSAF scores were significantly associated with hospital teaching status (β coefficient of major teaching hospital, 52.6; 95% CI, 8.9–96.4; P = .018), bed size (β coefficient of 100-bed increase, 5.1; 95% CI, 0.3–9.8; P = .038), and survey time (β coefficient of 2017 survey, 45.1; 95% CI, 19.3–70.9; P = .001). Conclusions: After the national policy implementation, the number of infection control professionals increased, and the promotion of hand hygiene activities was strengthened in Korean hospitals.
Dynamic recrystallization (DRX) of 99.9999% aluminum single crystal at room temperature was examined under frictionless deformation mode. To exclude the self-heating of the specimen due to applied high strain, a microcrack that localizes the stress at a very small region was intentionally introduced by controlled local necking. For the in situ observation of DRX, a specially designed in situ microdeformation device was positioned inside an electron backscattered diffraction system chamber. Recrystallized grains showed relatively random texture and preferred growth direction. The subgrains with low-angle grain boundaries formed by dynamic recovery transformed into small grains with high-angle grain boundaries, acting as nuclei for discontinuous dynamic recrystallization and growing by further deformation. The DRX in pure aluminum can take place under frictionless tensile deformation conditions at room temperature, and the stress localization and high purity are key issues for the DRX of aluminum at room temperature.
In order to characterize the microstructure of oxide layers formed on Zircaloy-4 tubes during the breakaway transition, oxidation tests in a flowing steam environment were performed at 1000°C with a different oxidation time. It was found that breakaway oxidation occurred after the oxidation time of 3000s, and zirconium dioxide layers existed in two mixed crystallographic forms of the tetragonal and monoclinic phase in all samples. The zirconium oxide layers showed enhanced crystallinity, increase in grain size, and fine pores at the grain boundary after breakaway oxidation. We found that the initiation of breakaway-oxidation instability originated from these microstructural changes.
Background: Low education and illiteracy are associated with an increased risk of dementia. This study aimed to develop a neuropsychological test battery applicable to both illiterate and literate elderly and to assess its reliability and validity for a diagnosis of dementia.
Methods: We developed the Literacy Independent Cognitive Assessment (LICA), which consists of 13 subtests assessing memory, language, visuoconstruction, executive function, attention and calculation. We investigated its reliability and validity on 152 patients with dementia, 66 with mild cognitive impairment and 639 normal controls.
Results: The subtests were found to be applicable to most of the illiterate normal controls (97.3%) and were found to have high inter-rater reliabilities (r = 0.85–1.00, p < 0.001) and moderate to high test-retest reliabilities (r = 0.50–0.86, p < 0.001). The LICA performed well in discriminating participants across Clinical Dementia Rating stages and showed excellent internal consistency and good concurrent validity with the Korean Mini-mental State Examination in both literate and illiterate participants. The area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic was 0.985 in each of the two literacy groups. Sensitivity and specificity of the LICA to make a diagnosis of dementia was 91.9% and 91.8% at the cutoff point of 186.0 in the literate subjects and 96.2% and 91.1% at the cutoff point of 154.5 in the illiterate subjects. The battery was factored into two separate factors consisting of verbal memory tests and tests for other cognitive domains.
Conclusion: The LICA is a valid and reliable instrument for a diagnosis of dementia in both illiterate and literate elderly.
This study aimed to investigate whether aquaporin 3 (Aqp3) mRNAs are expressed in immature oocytes and altered during in vitro maturation process. Five- to 6-week-old female ICR mice were primed by gonadotropin for 24 and 48 h. Immature oocytes obtained 48 h after priming were also matured in vitro for 17 to 18 h. In vivo matured oocytes were obtained after 48 h priming followed by hCG injection. Total RNAs were extracted from 80 to 150 oocytes in each experimental group, and the levels of Aqp3 mRNA were quantified by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The experiments were repeated twice using different oocytes. The Aqp3 mRNA was expressed in immature oocytes, as well as in in vitro and in vivo matured oocytes. The expression level was higher in immature oocytes obtained 48 h after priming (17.2 ± 8.6, mean ± SD) than those with no priming (5.7 ± 0.8) or obtained 24 h after priming (2.5 ± 0.8). The expression of Aqp3 mRNA decreased after in vitro maturation (1.2 ± 0.5), which was similar to in vivo matured oocytes (1.0 ± 0.0). Our work demonstrated that Aqp3 mRNA expression increased during the development of immature oocyte but decreased after completion of in vitro maturation. The results indicate that AQP3 is certainly needed for the acquisition of immature oocytes’ full growing potential within antral follicles.
We propose a new approach to the analysis of a discrete-time queueing system whose input is generated by a Markov-modulated process and whose service rate is constant. Renewal cycles are identified and the system state on each renewal cycle is modeled as a one-dimensional Markov chain.
This study sought to determine which factors among the indicators of socioeconomic status have the most influence on physical, mental and social functions, and on subjective well-being, all of which are components of successful ageing. A representative random sample of 1825 persons aged 65 years or older was surveyed by face-to-face interview. Socioeconomic status was measured by educational level, family household income, personal income and property ownership. The factors measured were chronic diseases, activities of daily living (ADL) for physical functioning, history of mental disease, Mini-Mental Status Examination questionnaire (MMSE) scores for mental functioning, social activity participation per week for social functioning, and the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS) for subjective well-being. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. Education level was the most important factor in physical and mental functioning, whereas personal income was the most important in social functioning. Educational level, household income and personal income were significantly associated with subjective well-being as assessed by PGCMS scores. Subjects who demonstrated successful ageing were more likely to have a higher education and higher personal income. The results point to the importance of focusing on disparities in each component of successful ageing, which may point to appropriate health-promotion strategies for eliminating inequality in successful ageing.
To describe the incidence of recovery of both vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from culture of a single clinical specimen, to describe the clinical characteristics of patients from whom these specimens were recovered, and to identify the risk factors of these patients.
A retrospective cohort and case-control study.
A tertiary care university hospital and referral center in Seoul, Korea.
We identified 61 case patients for whom a single clinical specimen yielded both VRE and MRSA on culture, and 122 control patients for whom any clinical specimen yielded only VRE on culture. The control patients were selected by matching 2 :1 with the case patients for age, sex, and first date of sampling that led to isolation of VRE or both VRE and MRSA among 1,536 VRE-colonized patients from January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2006. To identify patient risk factors for the recovery of both VRE and MRSA in a single clinical specimen, we performed univariate comparisons between the 2 groups and then multivariate logistic regression analysis.
The incidence of recovery of both VRE and MRSA from culture of a single clinical specimen was 3.97% (for 61 of 1,536 VRE-colonized patients) over 4 years. Among these 82 single clinical specimens, the most common type was wound specimens (26.8%), followed by lower respiratory tract specimens (18.3%), urine specimens (17.1%), and catheter tips (15.9%). Of the 61 case patients, 14 (23.0%) had 2 or more single clinical specimens that yielded both VRE and MRSA on culture, and the longest interval from the first sampling that yielded both organisms to the last sampling that yielded both was 174 days. Independent patient risk factors for the presence of both VRE and MRSA in a single clinical specimen were chronic renal disease (odds ratio [OR], 7.00; P = .012), urinary catheterization (OR, 3.36; P = .026), and longer total cumulative duration of hospital stay within the previous year (OR, 1.03; P < .001).
We confirmed that the recovery of VRE and MRSA from a single clinical specimen occurs continually. Because prolonged cell-to-cell contact can facilitate transfer of vanA, close observation and surveillance for vancomycin-resistant S. aureus, especially among patients with risk factors for the recovery of both VRE and MRSA from a single clinical specimen, should be continued.
Lithium based complex hydrides, including lithium aluminum hydrides and lithium borohydride (LiAlH4, Li3AlH6 and LiBH4), are among the most promising materials due to their high hydrogen contents. In the present work, we investigated the hydrogen storage properties of a new combined system of Li3AlH6-LiBH4. The samples were made with small amounts of catalyst under low energy milling conditions. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of a Ti-doped Li3AlH6/2LiBH4 indicated that the degree of hydrogen release reached 7.3 wt. % by the time the sample reached 450iÆc under a heating rate of 2iÆC/min. This increased to 8.8 wt. % when the sample was held at 450iÆCfor additional 8 hours minutes under this condition. The dehydrogenation product was a mixture of LiH and AlB2. This product could be rehydrogenated up to 3.8 wt. % under 24.1 MPa hydrogen pressure and 450iÆC.
Recently, the Antarctic Peninsula has received more attention due to the pronounced warming in that region. Non-glaciated coastal areas on the Peninsula can be significant energy sources for the atmosphere when they are exposed during summer despite the high degree of cloud associated with the frequent passage of low pressure systems. An eddy covariance system was established in December 2002 to evaluate the turbulent energy exchanges between the atmosphere and a non-glaciated coastal area on King George Island. Monthly average downward shortwave radiation was less than 210 Wm-2 in summer. Due to the low albedo of 0.12, monthly average net radiation reached > 130 Wm-2, a magnitude that was significantly larger than the reported magnitudes of < ~70 Wm-2 at glaciated areas with a high albedo on the Peninsula. The sum of monthly average sensible heat (< 64 Wm-2) and latent heat (< 20 Wm-2) fluxes amounted up to ~80 Wm-2, which was an order of magnitude larger than those at glaciated areas on the Antarctic Peninsula. Given that non-glaciated areas should be enlarged if the warming continues, more attention may need to be paid to the role of non-glaciated areas in the local climate to predict climate change on the Antarctic Peninsula.
Metal hydrides and amides are potential candidate materials for hydrogen storage. Lithium- and magnesium-based material systems are among the most promising materials owing to their high hydrogen contents. In the present work, we investigated hydrogenation/dehydrogenation reactions of a binary nitride, LiMgN. LiMgN can be formed by a reaction of MgH2 with LiNH2 in 1:1 ratio. The reaction also releases approximately ∼ 8.1 wt% H2 (theoretical value is 8.2 wt%) between 160 and 220 °C. The reaction product LiMgN can be rehydrogenated by reacting with H2 under 2000 psi of hydrogen pressure and 160 °C with small amount of TiCl3 doping. TGA results showed that about 8.0 wt% of hydrogen was stored in TiCl3-doped LiMgN during the hydrogenation process. The reversible hydrogenation and dehydrogenation mechanisms involving LiMgN and H2 are discussed.
The structural properties of GaN epitaxial layers grown on patterned sapphire substrates by MOCVD have been investigated using HRXRD(high-resolution X-ray diffraction), GIXRD(grazing incidence X-ray diffraction) and PL(photoluminescence). For X-ray characterizations rocking curves for GaN (10·5), (00·2), (11·4) and (11·0) reflections for which incidence angles of X-rays are 32.0°, 17.3°, 11.0° and 0.34°, respectively, were measured. For (10·5), (00·2) and (11·4) reflections FWHMs of the rocking curves for a patterned substrate were broader than those for a unpatterned substrate, for (11·0) reflection, however, FWHM for a patterned substrate was much narrower than that for a unpatterned substrate. The normalized FWHM for all reflections decreases as the incidence angle of X-ray decreases. The results indicate that the crystalline quality in the surface region of the epilayer on a patterned substrate was especially improved because the penetration depth of X-ray depends on the incidence angle. The intensity of PL peak of the epilayer for a patterned substrate increased compared to that for a unpatterned substrate, and the increase in PL intensity is attributed to the reduction in dislocation density at the surface region revealed the by X-ray results.
Dispersion characteristics of the surface modified MWNTs (Miltiwalled nanotubes) in the PU (polyurethane) matrix and electrical conductivity of the MWNTs/PU composites are investigated using SEM and DEA (Dielectric analyzer) with respect to the chemical treatment of MWNTs, the kind of surfactants and their content. Several chemical treatments of the MWNTs' surfaces were performed with the acids type, acidic concentration, treatment temperature, and oxidation time. All the surface of modified MWNTs are negatively charged and functionalized with carboxylic group; however, the external walls of some MWNTs were severely damaged so that they were frequently thinned and partially cracked. Compared to those of the composites without the addition of surfactant, the surfactant embedded into composites show much better dispersion of the MWNTs and higher electrical conductivity, these results are in good agreement with the two step adsorption model of cationic surfactants proposed by Y. Gao. Both the optimized MWNTs and cationic surfactant filled PU composites show very low percolation threshold, pc = 0.0089±0.007 vol. %, and relatively higher conductivity after percolation than other carbon nanotubes composite systems reported elsewhere.
BN films consisting of c-BN and h-BN phases were synthesized using an ion-beam-assisted deposition process. In contrast to conventional observations, the c-BN and h-BN phases did not form separate layers, but were distributed in the form of nano-sized grains throughout the film thickness. No distinctly aligned h-BN layer was observed before the c-BN phase. Such a mixed character of the film was attributed to a localized ion bombardment effect instead of the macro-stress. Possibly because of the presence of scattered h-BN phases, the thin film described here possessed a low hardness of about 20 GPa and a low stress of about 5 GPa, compared with other reported c-BN-containing films.
There have been many reports on the low temperature crystallization of amorphous silicon films by introducing a trace amount of metal impurity for low temperature poly-Si TFTs applications. MIC (Metal Induced Crystallization) uses various metals, to lower crystallization temperature. In this study, a new crystallization method called FALC (Field Aided Lateral Crystallization) in which an electric field is applied during the crystallization was explored. Among possible alloying elements with Si, Ni and Al were selected to compare the effects of these impurities on the FALC.
A trace of Ni lowered the crystallization temperature of a-Si down to 5001C and induced lateral crystal growth along the electric field into the metal free region. But Al exhibited no such effect. A new crystallization method, FALC, showed considerably enhanced speed of lateral crystallization and a strong preferred orientation in crystallized Si-films.
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