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To explore the relationship between dietary patterns and risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Chinese adults aged 45–59 years.
Dietary data were collected using a semi-quantitative FFQ. Factor analysis was used to identify the major dietary patterns. Logistic regression models were applied to clarify the association between dietary patterns and the risk of CKD.
The present study population was a part of the population-based Nutrition and Health Study performed in the city of Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, eastern China.
A total of 2437 eligible participants (45–59 years) were enrolled in the present cross-sectional study from June 2015 to December 2016.
Three major dietary patterns were identified: ‘traditional southern Chinese’, ‘Western’ and ‘grains–vegetables’ patterns, collectively accounting for 25·6 % of variance in the diet. After adjustment for potential confounders, participants in the highest quartile of the Western pattern had greater odds for CKD (OR = 1·83, 95 % CI 1·21, 2·81; P < 0·05) than those in the lowest quartile. Compared with the lowest quartile of the grains–vegetables pattern, the highest quartile had lower odds for CKD (OR = 0·84, 95 % CI 0·77, 0·93; P < 0·05). In addition, there was no significant association between the traditional southern Chinese pattern and risk of CKD (P > 0·05).
Our results suggest that the Western pattern is associated with an increased risk, whereas the grains–vegetables pattern is associated with a reduced risk for CKD. These findings can guide dietary interventions for the prevention of CKD in a middle-aged Chinese population.
The aim of this study is to characterize the injury profiles and outcomes of victims of a tornado in Jiangsu Province, China.
This study retrospectively investigated the clinical records of 144 patients treated at a teaching hospital due to a tornado. Each patient’s demographic data, diagnosis, injury types, causes of injury, infection status, and outcomes were all reviewed.
Of the 144 patients, 64 (44.4%) were male, and 80 (55.6%) were female. The patients’ ages ranged from 2 months to 94 years; 91 (63.19%) were admitted within the first 12 h after the disaster. The most frequently injured sites were the body surfaces (24.48%), followed by the limbs and pelvis (21.79%) and chest (20.3%). Soft-tissue injuries and fractures were the most frequent injuries. Traumatic brain injuries were the main causes of death. Tornado-related injuries were primarily caused by flying/falling bricks, wood, and glass. Twenty-three (15.9%) patients suffered from infections, which consisted mainly of skin/soft tissue infections and pneumonia.
Destructive tornadoes often cause heavy casualties with little warning. Medical aid agencies must be prepared to accommodate the massive numbers of injured patients after a catastrophe. Proper triage and prompt treatment of injured victims may decrease mortality. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;xx:xxx-xxx).
Palladium (Pd) and gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs) hybridized on two types of carbon supports, graphene and granular activated carbon (GAC), were shown to be promising catalysts for the sustainable hydrodehalogenation of aqueous trichloroethylene (TCE). These catalysts are capable of degrading TCE more rapidly than commercial Pd-on-GAC catalysts. The catalysts were synthesized at room temperature without the use of any environmentally unfriendly chemicals. Pd was chosen for its catalytic potency to break down TCE, while Au acts as a strong promoter of the catalytic activity of Pd. The results indicate that both graphene and GAC are favorable supports for the NPs due to high surface-to-volume ratios, unique surface properties, and the prevention of NP aggregation. The properties of NP catalysts were characterized using electron microscopy and spectroscopy techniques. The TCE degradation results indicate that the GAC-supported catalysts have a higher rate of TCE removal than the commercial Pd-on-GAC catalyst, and the degradation rate is greatly increased when using graphene-supported samples.
Monosized spherical Cu–20% Sn (wt%) alloy particles with diameter ranging from 70.6 to 334.0 μm were prepared by the pulsated orifice ejection method (termed “POEM”). Fully dense without pores and bulk inclusions, the cross-sectional micrographs of the spherical alloy particles indicate an even distribution of Cu and Sn. These spherical Cu–Sn alloy particles exhibit a good spherical shape and a narrow size distribution, suggesting that the liquid Cu–Sn alloy can completely break the balance between the surface tension and the liquid static pressure in the crucible micropores and accurately control the volume of the droplets. Furthermore, the cooling rate of spherical Cu–20% Sn alloy particles is estimated by a Newton’s cooling model. The cooling rate of the Cu–20% Sn alloy particle decreases gradually with the particle diameter increasing. Smaller particles have higher cooling rates and when the particle diameter is less than 70 μm, the cooling rate of particles can reach more than 3.3 × 104 K/s. The secondary dendrite arm spacing has strong dependence on particle diameter which increases gradually with the increase of particle diameter. The results demonstrate that POEM is an effective route for fabrication of high-quality monosized Cu–20% Sn alloy particles.
Elastocaloric materials exhibit extraordinary cooling potential, but the repetition of cyclic mechanical loadings during long-term operation of cooling systems requires the refrigerant material to have long fatigue life. This article reviews the fundamental cause of fatigue from aspects of initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks in shape-memory alloys (SMAs) that are used as elastocaloric materials, and highlights recent advances in using compression to overcome fatigue by curtailing the generation of surfaces associated with crack propagation. Compression is identified as a key means to extend fatigue lifetime in engineering design of elastocaloric cooling drive mechanisms. We summarize the state-of-the-art performance of different SMAs as elastocaloric materials and discuss the influence of low cyclic strains and high resistance to transformation. We present integration of compression-based material assemblies into a cooling system prototype and optimization of the system efficiency using work recovery and related measures.
Disclosing the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) to a patient is controversial. There is significant stigma associated with a diagnosis of AD or dementia in China, but the attitude of the society toward disclosure of such a diagnosis had not been formally evaluated prior to our study. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the attitude toward disclosing an AD diagnosis to patients in China with cognitive impairment from their caregivers, and the factors that may affect their attitude.
We designed a 17-item questionnaire and administered this questionnaire to caregivers, who accompanied patients with cognitive impairment or dementia in three major hospitals in Shanghai, China. The caregiver's attitude toward disclosing the diagnosis of AD as evaluated by the questionnaire was compared to that of disclosing the diagnosis of terminal cancer.
A majority (95.7%) of the 175 interviewed participants (mean 14.2 years of education received) wished to know their own diagnosis if they were diagnosed with AD, and 97.6% preferred the doctor to tell their family members if they were diagnosed with AD. If a family member of the participants suffered from AD, 82.9% preferred to have the diagnosis disclosed to the patient. “Cognitive impairment” was the most accepted term by caregivers to disclose AD diagnosis in Chinese.
This study suggests most of the well-educated individuals in a Chinese urban area favored disclosing the diagnosis when they or their family members were diagnosed with AD.
Obesity is associated with blood pressure (BP), but the associations between different obesity indicators and BP have not reached agreement. Besides, both obesity and BP are influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Whether they share the same genetic or environmental etiology has not been fully understood. We therefore analyzed the relationship between different obesity indicators and BP components as well as the genetic and environmental contributions to these relationships in a Chinese adult twin sample. Twins aged 18–79 years (n = 941) were included in this study. Body mass index (BMI) was used as the index of general obesity, whereas waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were used as the indicators of central obesity. BP components included systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Linear regression models and bivariate structural equation models were used to examine the relation of various obesity indicators with BP components, and genetic or environmental influences on these associations, respectively. A strong association of BP components with BMI—and a somewhat weaker association with WC, WHtR, and WHR—was found in both sexes, independent of familial factors. Of these phenotypic correlations between obesity indicators and BP components, 60–76% were attributed to genetic factors, whereas 24–40% were attributed to unique environmental factors. General obesity was most strongly associated with high BP in Chinese adult twins. There were common genetic backgrounds for obesity and BP, and unique environmental factors also played a role.
The acquisition and tracking strategies of the BeiDou navigation satellite signals are affected by the modulation of Neumann-Hoffman code (NH code), which increases the complexity of receiver baseband signal processing. Based on the analysis of probability statistics of the NH code, a special sequence of incoming signals is proposed to evade the bit transitions caused by the NH code, and an NH Code Evasion and Stripping method (NCES) based on the NH-pre-modulated code is proposed. The NCES can be applied in both 20-bit NH code and 10-bit NH code. The fine acquisition eliminates the impact of NH code on the traditional tracking loop. These methods were verified with a BeiDou PC-based software-defined receiver using the actual sampled signals. Compared with other acquisition schemes which try to determine or ignore the NH code phase, the NCES needs fewer incoming signals and the actual runtime is greatly reduced without sacrificing much time to search in the secondary code dimension, and the success rate of acquisition is effectively improved. An extension of Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)-based parallel code-phase search acquisition gives the NCES an advantage in engineering applications.
A fundamental problem of biology is to construct gene regulatory networks that characterize the operational interaction among genes. The term “gene” is used generically because such networks could involve gene products. Numerous inference algorithms have been proposed. The validity, or accuracy, of such algorithms is of central concern. Given data generated by a ground-truth network, how well does a model network inferred from the data match the data-generating network? This chapter discusses a general paradigm for inference validation based on defining a distance between networks and judging validity according to the distance between the original network and the inferred network. Such a distance will typically be based on some network characteristics, such as connectivity, rule structure, or steady-state distribution. It can also be based on some objective for which the model network is being employed, such as deriving an intervention strategy to apply to the original network with the aim of correcting aberrant behavior. Rather than assuming that a single network is inferred, one can take the perspective that the inference procedure leads to an “uncertainty class” of networks, to which belongs the ground-truth network. In this case, we define a measure of uncertainty in terms of the cost that uncertainty imposes on the objective, for which the model network is to be employed, the example discussed in the current chapter involving intervention in the yeast cell cycle network.
From a translational perspective, we are interested in gene regulatory networks (GRNs) as a vehicle to derive optimal intervention strategies for regulatory pathologies, cancer being the salient example (see [1–3] for reviews and  for extensive coverage). Two basic intervention approaches have been considered for gene regulatory networks in the context of probabilistic Boolean networks (PBNs), external control and structural intervention , a key to intervention being that the dynamic behavior of a PBN can be modeled by a Markov chain, thereby making intervention in PBNs amenable to the theory of Markov decision processes. Perhaps we should note that the ability of Markov chains to model GRNs has a long history in translational genomics . External control is based on externally manipulating the value of a control gene to beneficially alter the steady-state distribution, either indirectly via a one-step cost function  or directly via an objective function based on the steady-state distribution [7, 8].
Detailed analysis of the polarization tracking modules for Ku band active phased array antennas is presented. The proposed transmitter (14.0–14.5 GHz) and receiver (12.25–12.75 GHz) modules are based on the low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) technique, containing orthogonal dual channels with different phases controlled by phase shifters. The effect of amplitude and phase inconsistency between two channels on polarization tracking performance is analyzed. The validity of the analysis is verified by the measurements of the manufactured prototypes. The measured patterns of the active phased array antenna are given to illustrate the effects of the modules on polarization agility, which may be used for Ku band satellite antennas on mobile terminals.
To ascertain whether the Kunming (KM) mouse is an available model for age-related decline in female fertility in human or not, oocytes from young (6–8 weeks), middle-aged (9 months) and aged (12 months) female mice were compared with respect to number of oocytes, frequency of in-vitro maturation (IVM) and in-vitro fertilization (IVF), and meiotic chromosome segregation and alignment. The mean number of pups born per mouse decreased significantly from the young to the middle-aged and the aged mice. The mean number of ovarian follicles, ovarian germinal vesicle oocytes and ovulated MII oocytes decreased significantly with maternal age. The rate of IVM in oocytes from young mice (73.9%) was less significantly than that in oocytes from middle-aged and aged mice (86.1% and 84.4%, respectively). Immunocytochemical analysis showed that ageing caused a significantly higher rate (49.3%) of chromosome misalignment than that (15.7%) of the young mice. The presence of premature chromatids was also significantly higher in MII oocytes of aged mice as compared with young mice (37.8 versus 8.3%). Pronuclear formation was delayed in oocytes of middle-aged and aged females (35.5 and 42.3% respectively in 5 h of IVF) as compared with young mice (88.1%). The study suggests that KM mouse exhibits an age-related decline in female fertility. Significant reduction of germinal vesicle (GV) and MII oocytes and significant increase of metaphase chromosome misalignment and premature chromatid segregation after meiotic maturation of oocytes, similar to human, presumably contribute to the decline in aged KM mice.
The present study evaluated whether dietary arginine (Arg) supplementation could attenuate immune challenge induced by Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis C500 (S.C500) through the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4-myeloid differentiation factor 88 (Myd88) signalling pathway in weaned piglets. A total of thirty-six weaned pigs were randomly allocated into six groups with six replicates per group. Pigs were subjected to three dietary treatments (namely two groups per treatment) in the first week (0–7 d) and fed with diets containing 0, 0·5 and 1·0 % l-Arg, respectively. On day 8, pigs were injected intramuscularly either with S.C500 or sterile saline. Serum samples were collected at day 8 (before injection), and at 1, 3 and 10 d post-injection, pigs were killed for evaluation of tissue gene expression following the last blood collection. Piglets fed the diets with 0·5 or 1·0 % Arg supplementation had a higher concentration of serum Arg (P < 0·05). S.C500-challenged piglets had higher (P < 0·05) serum antibody levels during the days 9–18. Weight gain and feed intake were decreased remarkably (P < 0·01) after the injection of S.C500, and 0·5 or 1·0 % Arg supplementation tended to alleviate the inhibition. The S.C500 challenge significantly enhanced (P < 0·05) serum C-reactive protein (CRP), interferon-γ and IL-12 concentrations, but Arg supplementation attenuated (P < 0·05) the increase in CRP level. The mRNA expression of TLR4, TLR5, Myd88, p65 NF-κB and TNF-α was up-regulated (P < 0·05) by the S.C500 challenge in different tissues, but was down-regulated (P < 0·05) by Arg supplementation. In conclusion, Arg supplementation could inhibit the excessive activation of the TLR4-Myd88 signalling pathway and thus attenuated the negative effects caused by the immune challenge of S.C500.
The decomposition mechanism of block copolymer templates inside as-synthesized mesostructured solids has been systematically studied using solid-state 1H magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and high-vacuum Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. It is shown that there exists hydrogen-bonding interaction between silanols and block copolymers at the inorganic–organic interface in the self-assembled as-synthesized mesostructured solids, which plays an important role in protecting the surfactants against decomposition during the high-temperature hydrothermal treatment process. Increasing silanol concentration can enhance the hydrogen-bonding interaction and thus shows better “protection” effect. Moreover, the thermal decomposition of the block copolymer in as-synthesized mesostructured solids in air commences at higher temperatures compared with that in acidic solution or in air, providing further evidence in support of the silanol protection mechanism.
Graphene, two-dimensional layers of sp2-bonded carbon, has many unique properties. In this paper, graphene is decorated with flower-like MnO2 nanostructures for the application in energy storage devices. The as-prepared graphene and MnO2 nano-flowers, which were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), were assembled into an asymmetric supercapacitor. The specific capacitance of the graphene electrode reached 245 F/g at a charging current of 1 mA. The MnO2 nano-flowers which consisted of tiny rods with a diameter of less than 10 nm were coated onto the graphene electrodes by electrodeposition. The specific capacitance after the MnO2 deposition is 328 F/g at the charging current of 1 mA with an energy density of 11.4Wh/kg and power density of 25.8 kW/kg. This work suggests that our graphene-based electrodes can be a promising candidate for high-performance energy storage devices.
Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) pads require conditioning to maintain the surfaces yielding optimal performance. However, conditioning not only regenerates the pad surface but also wears away the pad material and slurry transport grooves. Non-optimized conditioning may result in non-uniform pad profiles, limiting the productive lifetimes of pads. A new approach to conditioning uses closed-loop control (CLC) of conditioning sweep to enable uniform groove depth removal across the pad, throughout pad life. A sensor integrated into the conditioning arm enables the pad stack thickness to be monitored in situ and in real time. Feedback from the thickness sensor is used to modify pad conditioner dwell times across the pad surface, correcting for drifts in the pad profile that may arise as the pad and disk age. Pad profile CLC enables uniform reduction in groove depth with continued conditioning, providing longer consumables lifetimes and reduced operating costs.
Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of Ser/Thr protein kinases that can be activated by Ca2+, phospholipid and diacylglycerol. There is evidence that PKC plays key roles in the meiotic maturation and activation of mammalian oocytes. The present study aimed to monitor the effect of age, germinal vesicle (GV) transfer and modified nucleoplasmic ratio on the subcellular distribution profile of PKCα, an important isozyme of PKC, in mouse oocytes undergoing meiotic maturation and following egg activation. Germinal vesicle oocytes were collected from 6–8-week-old and 12-month-old mice. Germinal vesicle-reconstructed oocytes and GV oocytes with one-half or one-third of the original oocyte volume were created using micromanipulation and electrofusion. The subcellular localization of PKCα was detected by immunocytochemistry and laser confocal microscopy. Our study showed that PKCα had a similar location pattern in oocytes and early embryos from young and old mice. PKCα was localized evenly in ooplasm, with weak staining in GV at the GV stage, and present in the entire meiosis II (MII) spindle at the MII stage. In pronuclear and 2-cell embryos, PKCα was concentrated in the nucleus except for the nucleolus. After the GV oocytes were reconstructed, the resultant MII oocytes and embryos showed a similar distribution of PKCα between reconstructed and unreconstructed controls. After one-half or two-thirds of the cytoplasm was removed from the GV oocytes, PKCα still had a similar location pattern in MII oocytes and early embryos from the GV oocytes with modified nucleoplasmic ratio. Our study showed that age, GV transfer and modified nucleocytoplasmic ratio does not affect distribution of PKCα during mouse oocyte maturation, activation, and early embryonic mitosis.
The cooperative self-assembly of organic–inorganic siliceous composite structures has been studied from the aspect of inorganic precursors. We reveal that the vesicular or mesostructured materials can be obtained selectively by just changing the silica sources in one templating system. For poly(ethylene oxide)-type block copolymers with either poly(propylene oxide) or poly(butylene oxide) as the hydrophobic moieties, when the other synthesis parameters are exactly the same, the use of tetramethyl orthosilicate (TMOS) as a silica source gives rise to highly ordered mesostructures, while the use of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) leads to vesicles or foams. The attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) technique is used to monitor the silicate species derived from the hydrolysis and condensation of TMOS and TEOS as a function of the reaction time. On the basis of the ATR-FTIR results, we propose a “differentiating effect” at relatively high pH (4.7) to interpret the influence of different silica sources on the self-organized composite structures. For comparison, a “leveling effect” at relatively low pH (strong acidic conditions) is revealed to explain that both TMOS and TEOS lead to the same mesostructures. Our contribution provides a feasible and designable method to synthesize from conventional ordered mesostructures to novel vesicular structures, which are significant for their future practical applications.