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Our present genetic data of Acanthocephala, especially the mitochondrial (mt) genomes, remains very limited. In the present study, the nearly complete mt genome sequences of Sphaerirostris lanceoides (Petrochenko, 1949) was sequenced and determined for the first time based on specimens collected from the Indian pond heron Ardeola grayii (Sykes) (Ciconiiformes: Ardeidae) in Pakistan. The mt genome of S. lanceoides is 13 478 bp in size and contains 36 genes, including 12 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs) and two ribosomal RNA genes (rRNAs). Moreover, in order to clarify the phylogenetic relationship of the genera Centrorhynchus and Sphaerirostris, and to test the systematic position of S. lanceoides in the Centrorhynchidae, the phylogenetic analyses were performed using Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood methods, based on concatenated nucleotide sequences of 12 PCGs, rRNAs and tRNAs. The phylogenetic results further confirmed the monophyly of the order Polymorphida and the paraphyly of the order Echinorhynchida in the class Palaeacanthocephala. Our results also challenged the validity of the genus Sphaerirostris (Polymorphida: Centrorhynchidae) and showed a sister relationship between S. lanceoides and S. picae (Rudolphi, 1819).
The discovery of governing equations from data is revolutionizing the development of some research fields, where the scientific data are abundant but the well-characterized quantitative descriptions are probably scarce. In this work, we propose to combine the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, which is a popular molecular simulation tool for gas flows, and machine learning to discover the governing equations for fluid dynamics. The DSMC method does not assume any macroscopic governing equations a priori but just relies on the model of molecular interactions at the microscopic level. The data generated by DSMC are utilized to derive the underlying governing equations using a sparse regression method proposed recently. We demonstrate that this strategy is capable of deriving a variety of equations in fluid dynamics, such as the momentum equation, diffusion equation, Fokker–Planck equation and vorticity transport equation. The data-driven discovery not only provides the right forms of the governing equations, but also determines accurate values of the transport coefficients such as viscosity and diffusivity. This work proves that data-driven discovery combined with molecular simulations is a promising and alternative method to derive governing equations in fluid dynamics, and it is expected to pave a new way to establish the governing equations of non-equilibrium flows and complex fluids.
Previous studies have shown conflicting findings regarding the relationship between maternal vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and fetal growth restriction (FGR). We hypothesised that parathyroid hormone (PTH) may be an underlying factor relevant to this potential association. In a prospective birth cohort study, descriptive statistics were evaluated for the demographic characteristics of 3407 pregnancies in the second trimester from three antenatal clinics in Hefei, China. The association of the combined status of vitamin D and PTH with birth weight and the risk of small for gestational age (SGA) was assessed by a multivariate linear and binary logistic regression. We found that declined status of 25-hydroxyvitamin D is associated with lower birth weight (for moderate VDD: adjusted β = −49·4 g, 95 % CI −91·1, −7·8, P < 0·05; for severe VDD: adjusted β = −79·8 g, 95 % CI −127·2, −32·5, P < 0·01), as well as ascended levels of PTH (for elevated PTH: adjusted β = −44·5 g, 95 % CI −82·6, −6·4, P < 0·05). Compared with the non-VDD group with non-elevated PTH, pregnancies with severe VDD and elevated PTH had the lowest neonatal birth weight (adjusted β = −124·7 g, 95 % CI −194·6, −54·8, P < 0·001) and the highest risk of SGA (adjusted risk ratio (RR) = 3·36, 95 % CI 1·41, 8·03, P < 0·01). Notably, the highest risk of less Ca supplementation was founded in severe VDD group with elevated PTH (adjusted RR = 4·67, 95 % CI 2·78, 7·85, P < 0·001). In conclusion, elevated PTH induced by less Ca supplementation would further aggravate the risk of FGR in pregnancies with severe VDD through impaired maternal Ca metabolism homoeostasis.
This article presents a brief review of our case studies of data-driven Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) for intelligently discovering advanced structural metal materials, including light-weight materials (Ti, Mg, and Al alloys), refractory high-entropy alloys, and superalloys. The basic bonding in terms of topology and electronic structures is recommended to be considered as the building blocks/units constructing the microstructures of advanced materials. It is highlighted that the bonding charge density could not only provide an atomic and electronic insight into the physical nature of chemical bond of materials but also reveal the fundamental strengthening/embrittlement mechanisms and the local phase transformations of planar defects, paving a path in accelerating the development of advanced metal materials via interfacial engineering. Perspectives on the knowledge-based modeling/simulations, machine-learning knowledge base, platform, and next-generation workforce for sustainable ecosystem of ICME are highlighted, thus to call for more duty on the developments of advanced structural metal materials and enhancement of research productivity and collaboration.
The timing of the Holocene summer monsoon maximum (HSMM) in northeastern China has been much debated and more quantitative precipitation records are needed to resolve the issue. In the present study, Holocene precipitation and temperature changes were quantitatively reconstructed from a pollen record from the sediments of Tianchi Crater Lake in northeastern China using a plant functional type-modern analogue technique (PFT-MAT). The reconstructed precipitation record indicates a gradual increase during the early to mid-Holocene and a HSMM at ~5500–3100 cal yr BP, while the temperature record exhibits a divergent pattern with a marked rise in the early Holocene and a decline thereafter. The trend of reconstructed precipitation is consistent with that from other pollen records in northeastern China, confirming the relatively late occurrence of the HSMM in the region. However, differences in the onset of the HSMM within northeastern China are also evident. No single factor appears to be responsible for the late occurrence of the HSMM in northeastern China, pointing to a potentially complex forcing mechanism of regional rainfall in the East Asian monsoon region. We suggest that further studies are needed to understand the spatiotemporal pattern of the HSMM in the region.
To examine urban–rural disparity in childhood stunting, wasting and malnutrition at national and subnational levels in Chinese primary-school children in 2010 and 2014.
Data were obtained from two nationwide cross-sectional surveys conducted in 2010 and 2014. Malnutrition was classified using the Chinese national ‘Screening Standard for Malnutrition of Children’.
All twenty-seven mainland provinces and four municipalities of mainland China.
Children aged 7–12 years (n 215 214; 107 741 in 2010 and 107 473 in 2014) from thirty-one provinces.
Stunting, wasting and malnutrition prevalence were 1·9, 12·3 and 13·7 % in 2010, but decreased to 1·0, 9·4 and 10·2 % in 2014, respectively. The prevalence of stunting, wasting and malnutrition in both urban and rural children was higher in western provinces, while lower in eastern provinces. Although the prevalence of wasting and malnutrition was higher in rural children than their urban counterparts, the urban–rural disparity in both wasting and malnutrition decreased from 2010 to 2014 (prevalence OR: wasting, 1·35 to 1·16; malnutrition, 1·50 to 1·27). A reversal occurred in 2014 in several eastern provinces where the prevalence of wasting and malnutrition in urban children surpassed their rural peers. The urban–rural disparity was larger in western provinces than eastern provinces.
The shrinking urban–rural disparity and the reversal in wasting and malnutrition suggest that the malnutrition situation has improved during the post-crisis period, especially in the western provinces. Region-specific policies and interventions can be useful to sustainably mitigate malnutrition in Chinese children, especially in rural areas and the western provinces.
We incorporate deep learning (DL) into tiled aperture coherent beam combining (CBC) systems for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. By using a well-trained convolutional neural network DL model, which has been constructed at a non-focal-plane to avoid the data collision problem, the relative phase of each beamlet could be accurately estimated, and then the phase error in the CBC system could be compensated directly by a servo phase control system. The feasibility and extensibility of the phase control method have been demonstrated by simulating the coherent combining of different hexagonal arrays. This DL-based phase control method offers a new way of eliminating dynamic phase noise in tiled aperture CBC systems, and it could provide a valuable reference on alleviating the long-standing problem that the phase control bandwidth decreases as the number of array elements increases.
The control of cutoffs is of great interest in designs of circular waveguides. In this paper, this topic is investigated for pure transverse-electric (TE) and transverse-magnetic (TM) modes by taking advantage of anisotropic reactance lining loadings. It is found that the cutoffs of TE and TM modes are determined by the reactance in the azimuthal and axial directions, respectively. When the reactance values are positive, the cutoff frequencies are lower than those of a normal conducting waveguide with the same cross-section. However, in contrast to the claim made in the previous literature that the negative reactance values caused the same reducing effect on the cutoffs as the positive values did, the cutoffs are found to be increased by the negative reactances. The theoretical results are validated by the simulations using commercial software, where a delicate model with an approximate curved anisotropic impedance boundary is proposed for the first time. By lowering the TE cutoffs and raising the TM ones, some intriguing applications, such as single-mode bandwidth extension and degenerate mode avoidance, are predicted, which would pave a way for designs of novel waveguide devices.
The prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and diabetes mellitus (DM) has reportedly increased significantly among Chinese children and adolescents. We aimed to examine the prevalence of IFG and DM, the disparities in sex and region and related risk factors among Chinese children and adolescents. A total of 16 434 Chinese children aged 6–17 years were selected from a national cross-sectional survey, and fasting glucose was measured for all participants. Overall, mean fasting plasma glucose (FPG) concentration was (4·64 (sd 0·51)) mmol/l, and the prevalence of DM and IFG was 0·10 and 1·89 %, respectively. Compared with girls, boys had higher FPG concentration (4·69 v. 4·58 mmol/l, r 0·107, P<0·001) and IFG prevalence (2·67 v. 1·07 %, rφ 0·059, P<0·001). Compared with rural children and adolescents, urban children and adolescent had higher FPG concentration (4·65 v. 4·62 mmol/l, r 0·029, P<0·001) and DM prevalence (0·15 v. 0·05 %, rφ 0·016, P<0·01). In addition, self-reported fried foods intake and overweight/obesity were positively associated with IFG, and the proportion of consuming fried foods more than or equal to once per week and overweight/obesity prevalence in boys and urban children and adolescents were significantly higher than girls and rural children and adolescents, respectively (P<0·05). Although the prevalence of IFG and DM was relatively low in Chinese children and adolescents, sex and region disparities were observed, which may be associated with differences in overweight/obesity prevalence and dietary factors.
Monosized spherical Cu–20% Sn (wt%) alloy particles with diameter ranging from 70.6 to 334.0 μm were prepared by the pulsated orifice ejection method (termed “POEM”). Fully dense without pores and bulk inclusions, the cross-sectional micrographs of the spherical alloy particles indicate an even distribution of Cu and Sn. These spherical Cu–Sn alloy particles exhibit a good spherical shape and a narrow size distribution, suggesting that the liquid Cu–Sn alloy can completely break the balance between the surface tension and the liquid static pressure in the crucible micropores and accurately control the volume of the droplets. Furthermore, the cooling rate of spherical Cu–20% Sn alloy particles is estimated by a Newton’s cooling model. The cooling rate of the Cu–20% Sn alloy particle decreases gradually with the particle diameter increasing. Smaller particles have higher cooling rates and when the particle diameter is less than 70 μm, the cooling rate of particles can reach more than 3.3 × 104 K/s. The secondary dendrite arm spacing has strong dependence on particle diameter which increases gradually with the increase of particle diameter. The results demonstrate that POEM is an effective route for fabrication of high-quality monosized Cu–20% Sn alloy particles.
Health care workers performing rescue tasks in large-scale disaster areas are usually challenged in terms of physical and mental endurance, which can affect their lifestyles. Nevertheless, data on whether health care workers tend to adopt healthy lifestyles after disasters are limited. This paper compares the adoption of healthy lifestyle behaviors among health care workers with that among non–health care workers in a postdisaster area.
This cross-sectional observational study was conducted in August 2016. The Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II questionnaire was used to interview 261 health care workers and 848 non–health care workers.
Results of the multivariable linear models showed that health care workers had lower physical activity levels (ß=−1.363, P<.0001), worse stress management (ß=−1.282, P<.0001), slower spiritual growth (ß=−1.228, P=.002), and poorer interpersonal relationships (ß=−0.814, P=.019) than non–health care workers. However, no significant differences were found in either nutrition (ß=−0.362, P=.319) or health responsibility (ß=−0.421, P=.283).
Health care workers had less healthy lifestyle behaviors, including physical activity, stress management, spiritual growth, and interpersonal relationships. Further studies are needed to develop health-improving interventions for health care workers in postdisaster areas. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:230–235)
Parents commonly fail to correctly recognize the weight status of their child. Whether parental perception of child weight is associated with weight-related parenting behaviours and child behaviours is unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the distribution of parental perception of child weight and its associations with weight-related parenting behaviours and child behaviours in China.
Seven provinces in China.
A total of 47 417 children aged 6–17 years and their parents were included from a national survey in 2013. Parental perception of child weight, weight-related parenting behaviours and child behaviours were self-reported. Child’s weight and height were objectively measured.
A total of 30·5 % of parents underestimated and 8·7 % overestimated the child’s weight. Parental underestimation was more common among younger children, boys and children with a lower BMI Z-score. Parents who perceived that their child had a healthy weight (accurately or inaccurately) were more likely to prepare breakfast for the child, exercise with him/her, set apart his/her exercise time, restrict his/her screen time, and were less likely to store soft drinks for the child. Children perceived to have a healthy weight, regardless of their actual weight status, behaved healthier on dietary intake, physical activity and homework time.
Parental underestimation of their child’s weight was prominent in China, especially among younger children, boys and children with a lower BMI Z-score. Parental recognition of their child being overweight did not appear to translate into healthy changes in weight-related parenting behaviours or child behaviours.
Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is a treatment option for patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer who are medically inoperable or decline surgery. Here we compare the outcome of patients with centrally located lung tumours who underwent either single fraction (SF)- or five-fraction (FF-) SBRT at a single institution over 5 years.
Between January 2009 and October 2014, patients with centrally located lung tumours who underwent SBRT were included in this study. Data were retrospectively collected using an institutional review board-approved database. For analysis, the Kaplan–Meier method and competing risks method were used.
In total, 11 patients received 26–30 Gy in 1 fraction, whereas 31 patients received 50–60 Gy (median 55 Gy) in 5 fractions. After a median follow-up of 12 months for SF-SBRT and 17 months for FF-SBRT groups (p=0·64), 1-year overall survival rates were 82 and 87%, respectively. SF- and FF-SBRT groups showed no significant difference in grade 3+ toxicity (p=0·28). The only grade 4 toxicity (n=1) was reported in the SF-SBRT group. All toxicities occurred >12 months after the SBRT.
SF- and FF-SBRT have comparable overall survival. SF-SBRT may have some utility for patients unable to have multi-fraction SBRT.
In magnetically confined plasma research, the understandings of small and large perturbations at equilibrium are both critical for plasma controlling and steady state operation. Numerical simulations using original MHD model can hardly give clear picture for small perturbations, while non-conservative perturbed MHD model may break conservation law, and give unphysical results when perturbations grow large after long-time computation. In this paper, we present a nonlinear conservative perturbed MHD model by splitting primary variables in original MHD equations into equilibrium part and perturbed part, and apply an approach in the framework of discontinuous Galerkin (DG) spatial discretization for numerical solutions. This enables high resolution of very small perturbations, and also gives satisfactory non-smooth solutions for large perturbations, which are both broadly concerned in magnetically confined plasma research. Numerical examples demonstrate satisfactory performance of the proposed model clearly. For small perturbations, the results have higher resolution comparing with the original MHD model; for large perturbations, the non-smooth solutions match well with existing references, confirming reliability of the model for instability investigations in magnetically confined plasma numerical research.
Brief cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) is an emerging treatment for
schizophrenia in community settings; however, further trials are needed,
especially in non-Western countries.
To test the effects of brief CBT for Chinese patients with schizophrenia
in the community (trial registration: ChiCTR-TRC-13003709).
A total of 220 patients with schizophrenia from four districts of Beijing
were randomly assigned to either brief CBT plus treatment as usual (TAU)
or TAU alone. Patients were assessed at baseline, post-treatment and at
6- and 12-month follow-ups by raters masked to group allocation.
At the post-treatment assessment and the 12-month follow-up, patients who
received brief CBT showed greater improvement in overall symptoms,
general psychopathology, insight and social functioning. In total, 37.3%
of those in the brief CBT plus TAU group experienced a clinically
significant response, compared with only 19.1% of those in the TAU alone
group (P = 0.003).
Brief CBT has a positive effect on Chinese patients with schizophrenia in
There is accumulating evidence for the role of fronto-striatal and associated circuits in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) but limited and conflicting data on alterations in cortical thickness.
To investigate alterations in cortical thickness and subcortical volume in OCD.
In total, 412 patients with OCD and 368 healthy adults underwent magnetic resonance imaging scans. Between-group analysis of covariance of cortical thickness and subcortical volumes was performed and regression analyses undertaken.
Significantly decreased cortical thickness was found in the OCD group compared with controls in the superior and inferior frontal, precentral, posterior cingulate, middle temporal, inferior parietal and precuneus gyri. There was also a group x age interaction in the parietal cortex, with increased thinning with age in the OCD group relative to controls.
Our findings are partially consistent with earlier work, suggesting that group differences in grey matter volume and cortical thickness could relate to the same underlying pathology of OCD. They partially support a frontostriatal model of OCD, but also suggest that limbic, temporal and parietal regions play a role in the pathophysiology of the disorder. The group x age interaction effects may be the result of altered neuroplasticity.
Even though there are various fast methods and preconditioning techniques available for the simulation of Poisson problems, little work has been done for solving Poisson's equation by using the Helmholtz decomposition scheme. To bridge this issue, we propose a novel efficient algorithm to solve Poisson's equation in irregular two dimensional domains for electrostatics through a quasi-Helmholtz decomposition technique—the loop-tree basis decomposition. It can handle Dirichlet, Neumann or mixed boundary problems in which the filling media can be homogeneous or inhomogeneous. A novel point of this method is to first find the electric flux efficiently by applying the loop-tree basis functions. Subsequently, the potential is obtained by finding the inverse of the gradient operator. Furthermore, treatments for both Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions are addressed. Finally, the validation and efficiency are illustrated by several numerical examples. Through these simulations, it is observed that the computational complexity of our proposed method almost scales as , where N is the triangle patch number of meshes. Consequently, this new algorithm is a feasible fast Poisson solver.
A self-made die with large cross section (180.2 × 22.2 mm) for equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) was used to study the influence of two different pressing routes (CX and CY) on refining homogeneity of high-purity aluminum plates. Microstructures were investigated by optical microscopy (OM) and electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) methods, and micro-hardness and tensile tests were taken to evaluate deformation degree across the cross section and mechanical properties, respectively. The results indicate that pressing routes of ECAP have a great influence on structure homogeneity of plate samples. The route CY leads to fine grains with better homogeneity because the same deformation direction is taken through each pass. Coarse columnar crystals with 3–4 mm change to 68.6 μm nearly equiaxed grains and a strong cube texture forms after four CY passes, and corresponding mechanical properties increase by a factor compared to as-cast plate.