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Indoor mold levels typically increase after natural disasters, flooding, and water damage. Eurotium herbariorum is the sexual stage of Aspergillus glaucus.
A 66-year-old, Japanese male, ex-smoker had been diagnosed with bronchial asthma when he was five years old; he achieved remission at the age of 13 years. He was displaced from his home during the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011 and moved to temporary housing in Miyagi Prefecture in June 2011. He experienced the first episode of chest tightness, coughing, and wheezing in February 2012, when he again was diagnosed as having bronchial asthma. Mycofloral surveillance detected high counts of Eurotium in the air of his bedroom, kitchen, and living room, with a maximal fungal count of 163,200 colony-forming units per cubic meter (CFU/m3). Although Cladosporium and Penicillium typically predominate in the indoor air of residential dwellings, only low levels of these organisms were present in the patient’s home. Morphologic identification confirmed the isolates as E. herbariorum. The patient had positive reactions to E. herbariorum in skin prick testing and the presence of antigen-specific precipitating antibodies to E. herbariorum. Computed tomography of the chest in August 2013 revealed central bronchiectasis and bronchial wall thickening. The patient experienced late reactions after provocation testing with E. herbariorum.
This report presents the rare case of a patient who developed allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM) due to exposure to E. herbariorum during temporary housing after the Great East Japan Earthquake.
OshikataC, WatanabeM, SaitoA, IshidaM, KobayashiS, KonumaR, KamataY, TerajimaJ, ChoJ, YanaiM, TsurikisawaN. Allergic Bronchopulmonary Mycosis due to Exposure to Eurotium herbariorum after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(6):688–690.
In this note we present a simple alternative proof for the Bernstein problem in the three dimensional Heisenberg group
by using the loop group technique. We clarify the geometric meaning of the two-parameter ambiguity of entire minimal graphs with prescribed Abresch-Rosenberg differential.
Chalcogenide materials have regained attention after the recent recognition of the compatibility of transition metal dichalcogenides with graphene. Additionally, there has been a recent appreciation for the rich variety of properties they support due to the anomalies in the materials’ intrinsic band structure. These materials generally have layered structures and weak interlayer connection through the chalcogen layer and its van der Waals type bonding. We have synthesized orthorhombic copper telluride and measured its electrical transport properties. The results of these measurements reveal that the conduction is metallic in both the in-plane and out-of-plane directions. The range of stability of this structure is examined along with the lattice constants. The independence of the resistivity in samples to changes in excess copper indicates that the transport is essentially within the conducting planes. This result shows that the material hosts two-dimensional character likely due to its covalent interlayer bonding.
Thready stripe-patterned thermo-responsive surfaces were prepared and their surface properties were characterized. Prepared 3 μm wide stripe-patterned surfaces were evaluated by observing the adhesions and detachments of three types of cells: HeLa cells (HeLas), human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and NIH-3T3 cells (3T3s). Although cell adhesion and detachment in response to temperature were observed on all cells on a conventional thermo-responsive surface without patterns, the thermo-responsive surface with a 3 μm striped-pattern exhibited various cell adhesion properties. HeLas hardly adhered to the patterned surface even at 37 °C. On the other hand, although HUVECs adhered on the patterned surface at 12 h after incubation at 37 °C, the adhered HUVECs detached themselves after another 12 h incubation at 37 °C. 3T3s adhered to the patterned surface at 37 °C and detached themselves after reducing temperature to 20 °C. A mixture of HeLa, HUVEC and 3T3 was separated using their different specific cell-adhesion properties, and the composition of cells was analyzed by a flow-cytometry. As a result, the conventional thermo-responsive surface with a stripe-pattern was found to function as a cell-separating interface by using specific cell adhesion properties.
Titan, the largest satellite of Saturn, has a thick atmosphere containing nitrogen and methane. A variety of organic compounds have been detected in the atmosphere, most likely produced when atmospheric gases are exposed to ultraviolet light, electrons captured by the magnetosphere of Saturn and cosmic rays. The Cassini/Huygens probe showed that the average temperature on the surface of Titan is 93.7 K, with lakes of liquid ethane and methane. Sub-surface mixtures of liquid ammonia and water may also be present. We have synthesized complex organic compounds (tholins) by exposing a mixture of nitrogen and methane to plasma discharges, and investigated their interactions with several different liquids that simulate Titan's liquidosphere. We found that coacervates formed when tholins were extracted in non-polar solvents followed by exposure to aqueous ammonia solutions. The results suggest that coacervates can self-assemble in Titan's liquidosphere which have the potential to undergo further chemical evolution. Similar processes are likely to occur in the early evolution of habitable planets when tholin-like compounds undergo phase separation into microscopic structures dispersed in a suitable aqueous environment.
Loss of patient information can hinder medical care for evacuees and the reconstruction of medical facilities damaged by major incidents. In Japan, health insurance coverage is universal, and information about diagnoses and health care services provided is shared by the medical facilities, Health Insurance Claims Review and Reimbursement Services or the National Health Insurance Organization (NHIO), and the insurers. After the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, we interviewed officers in charge of NHIO in the 3 prefectures that were damaged by the earthquake and elicited how they assisted with medical care for evacuees and reconstruction of the damaged medical facilities.
Comprehensive interviews were conducted with officers in charge of the NHIO in the 3 prefectures to obtain information about the use and provision of health insurance claims data 3 to 4 months after the event. We then analyzed the official data concerning use of the information from the claims in chronological order.
The NHIO headquarters in the 3 prefectures were not physically affected by the disaster, and their information on the health insurance claims was intact. Patient information acquired before the disaster was obtained from the health insurance claims and applied to the medical care of the evacuees. The information also was used to reconstruct patient records lost in the disaster.
The information that was obtained from health insurance claims was used to improve medical care after the large-scale disaster. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2013;0:1–5)
The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) mechanism of non-Pt catalysts was elucidated by investigating electronic structures of carbon alloy catalysts (CACs) for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). For metal phthalocyanine-based carbon alloy catalysts with 1-2% of nitrogen and less than 0.1% of Co or Fe, photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) have revealed that Co or Fe metal sites are not the ORR active site, whereas the carbon atoms adjacent to graphitic nitrogens at a zigzag edge of graphite may act as the ORR active site, which is in good agreement with first principles calculations. These studies have also revealed that the zigzag edges, detected as a XAS shoulder component, are well evolved for catalysts pyrolyzed at 600°C, which show the maximum ORR activity. Based on these analyses, we have realized significantly improved carbon alloy based ORR performance, up to about 70 % of that with Pt catalysts. Further, to analyze the electronic structure of CACs during operation, we constructed a new in situ soft X-ray emission spectroscopy system with very high energy resolution (ΔE) of 120 meV at 640 eV at the University of Tokyo beamline BL07LSU in SPring-8.
We report a successful demonstration of a position control technique for carbon nanotube growth catalyzed by an iron nano-dot array, which was fabricated by using electron beam induced chemical vapor deposition (EB-CVD). Point irradiation of an electron beam with ferrocene source gas produced an amorphous carbon dot containing iron atoms that were uniformly dispersed into each dot, and its position could be precisely controlled. Vacuum annealing of the ferrocene based dots induced segregation of iron nano-particles, whose size was almost proportional to the beam irradiation time. After removing the carbon residue, an ethanol CVD process carried out at 800°C under 40 mmHg of ethanol vapor induced carbon nanotube growth from the dots. Many grown nanotubes were very thin, being 0.7 to 1.8 nm in diameter. These diameters were much less than that of the bottom iron particles.
The electronic states of Ba8Ga16Ge30 and Sr8Ga16Ge30 are studied by soft x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) at a high-energy facility. In Ba8Ga16Ge30, three bands are resolved in the valence band region. Resonance experiments together with theoretical calculations show that the three band structures in the valence band are mainly constructed by the Ge/Ga 4s and 4p wave functions with little contributions of Ba 5s, 5p and 5d. The valence band of Sr8Ga16Ge30 shows a similar feature to that of Ba8Ga16Ge30. It is clearly shown that the atomic orbitals of Ba and Sr make little hybridization with the orbitals made by the framework polyhedra. This provides the understanding of the thermoelectricity in clathrates, and assists the design in high performance thermoelectric materials in this family.
Several genetic mosaics for larval body marking of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, have been induced by X-ray irradiation. It is hypothesized that the occasional loss of chromosomal fragments carrying the genes for body marking during development may give rise to this type of mosaicism. Using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), we find that a DNA molecule of about 2·5 megabases (Mb) is present in one type of mosaic (mottled striped strains pSm788 and pSm872), and not in any other strain. This DNA fragment hybridizes strongly with some chorion genes which are less than 6·9 cM away from the ps locus, and hence it corresponds to a chromosomal fragment containing genes for both striped marking (ps) and the chorion. In the non-mottled ps strain, the phenotype before X-ray irradiation, no band was detected either on a PFGE gel or after hybridization with the chorion probe. These results suggest that the mottled ps strains carry short chromosome fragments which are lost differentially during cell divisions.
To analyze abnormal fertilization in a hereditary mosaic strain (mo/mo) of Bombyx mori, the percentages of diploidy mosaic, polyploidy mosaic and polyploid eggs in a batch were estimated by using egg colour mutants (pe re). Among 48 890 eggs from crosses of pe + / + re, mo/mo females with pe re/pe re males, 9409 abnormal eggs were obtained; 4472 of them were diploidy mosaics (red-white eggs), 4038 were polyploids (black eggs) and 899 were polyploidy mosaics (566 black-white, 256 black-red and 77 black-white-red eggs). The total number of diploidy mosaic eggs was approximately equal to that of polyploid eggs. A significant correlation was detected between the diploidy mosaic and polyploid egg ratios within a batch. This suggests that diploidy mosaics are produced by double fertilization in which two genetically non-identical egg nuclei are fertilized in turn by a sperm, and polyploids are formed by the fertilization of a diploid, non-disjunctive egg nucleus gamete by a single sperm. Our results also indicated the presence of common factors modifying both mosaic and polyploid frequency. The concordance of the observed ratio of polyploidy mosaic eggs (1·84%) with the expected value (diploidy mosaic ratio × polyploidy ratio × 2 = 1·83%) suggests that the formation of mosaics occurs independently of the formation of polyploids in this abnormal fertilization process. We point out that it is necessary to modify Goldschmidt & Katsuki's general model to explain abnormal fertilization, and we propose several possible models.
A wide variety of organic compounds have been found in carbonaceous chondrites and comets, which suggests that extraterrestrial organic compounds could have been an important source of the first terrestrial biosphere. In the Greenberg model, these organic compounds in the small bodies were originally formed in interstellar dusts (ISD) in dense clouds by the action of cosmic rays and ultraviolet light. We irradiated a frozen mixture of methanol, ammonia and water with high-energy heavy ions from an accelerator (“HIMAC” in NIRS, Japan) to simulate the action of cosmic rays in dense clouds. Racemic mixtures of amino acids were detected after hydrolysis of the irradiation products. A mixture of carbon monoxide, ammonia and water also gave such complex amino acid precursors with large molecular weights. When such amino acid precursors were irradiated with circular polarized UV light from a synchrotron, enantiomeric excesses were detected. The yield of amino acids was not largely changed between, before, and after CPL-irradiation. The present results suggest that the seed of homochirality of terrestrial amino acids were originally formed in interstellar space.
The effects of oral administration of a lactococcal strain on physiological changes associated with ageing were investigated using senescence-accelerated mice (SAM). SAM develop normally, but then show an early onset and irreversible advancement of senescence. SAMP6 is a SAM strain that develops osteoporosis with ageing. Oral administration of heat-killed Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris H61 (strain H61) to aged SAMP6 mice was associated with reduced bone density loss, a suppression of incidence of skin ulcers and reduced hair loss, compared with controls. Spleen cells from mice fed strain H61 produced more interferon-γ and IL-12 than those from control mice, suggesting that administration of strain H61 altered immune responses. The numbers of viable cells of Bifidobacterium sp., Bacteroides sp. and Enterococcus sp. in faeces were similar for mice fed the strain H61 and control diets, but counts for Staphylococcus sp. were significantly lower (P < 0·05) in mice fed strain H61. Mice fed strain H61 had similar serum concentrations of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances as in controls, indicating a lack of effect on lipid peroxidation status. Administration of living cells of strain H61 or fermented milk containing strain H61 was also associated with a suppression of incidence of skin ulcers and reduced hair loss. These results indicate that oral administration of strain H61 has the potential to suppress some of the manifestations associated with ageing.
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