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The Chinese National Twin Registry (CNTR), initiated in 2001, has now become the largest twin registry in Asia. From 2015 to 2018, the CNTR continued to receive Chinese government funding and had recruited 61,566 twin-pairs by 2019 to study twins discordant for specific exposures such as environmental factors, and twins discordant for disease outcomes or measures of morbidity. Omic data, including genetics, genomics, metabolomics, and proteomics, and gut microbiome will be tested. The integration of omics and digital technologies in public health will advance our understanding of precision public health. This review introduces the updates of the CNTR, including study design, sample size, biobank, zygosity assessment, advances in research and future systems epidemiologic research.
To explore the relationship between dietary patterns and risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Chinese adults aged 45–59 years.
Dietary data were collected using a semi-quantitative FFQ. Factor analysis was used to identify the major dietary patterns. Logistic regression models were applied to clarify the association between dietary patterns and the risk of CKD.
The present study population was a part of the population-based Nutrition and Health Study performed in the city of Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, eastern China.
A total of 2437 eligible participants (45–59 years) were enrolled in the present cross-sectional study from June 2015 to December 2016.
Three major dietary patterns were identified: ‘traditional southern Chinese’, ‘Western’ and ‘grains–vegetables’ patterns, collectively accounting for 25·6 % of variance in the diet. After adjustment for potential confounders, participants in the highest quartile of the Western pattern had greater odds for CKD (OR = 1·83, 95 % CI 1·21, 2·81; P < 0·05) than those in the lowest quartile. Compared with the lowest quartile of the grains–vegetables pattern, the highest quartile had lower odds for CKD (OR = 0·84, 95 % CI 0·77, 0·93; P < 0·05). In addition, there was no significant association between the traditional southern Chinese pattern and risk of CKD (P > 0·05).
Our results suggest that the Western pattern is associated with an increased risk, whereas the grains–vegetables pattern is associated with a reduced risk for CKD. These findings can guide dietary interventions for the prevention of CKD in a middle-aged Chinese population.
The onset of thermal convection in a rapidly rotating spherical shell is studied by linear stability analysis based on the fully compressible Navier–Stokes equations. Compressibility is quantified by the number of density scale heights
, which measures the intensity of density stratification of the motionless, polytropic base state. The nearly adiabatic flow with polytropic index
is considered, where
is the adiabatic polytropic index. By investigating the stability of the base state with respect to the disturbance of specified wavenumber, the instability process is found to be sensitive to the Prandtl number
. For large
, the quasi-geostrophic columnar mode loses stability first; while for relatively small
a new quasi-geostrophic compressible mode is identified, which becomes unstable first under strong density stratification. The inertial mode can also occur first for relatively small
and a certain intensity of density stratification in the parameter range considered. Although the Rayleigh numbers
for the onsets of the quasi-geostrophic compressible mode and columnar mode are different by several orders of magnitude, we find that they follow very similar scaling laws with the Taylor number. The critical
for convection onset is found to be always positive, in contrast with previous results based on the widely used anelastic model that convection can occur at negative
. By evaluating the relative magnitude of the time derivative of density perturbation in the continuity equation, we show that the anelastic approximation in the present system cannot be applied in the small-
The aim of this study is to characterize the injury profiles and outcomes of victims of a tornado in Jiangsu Province, China.
This study retrospectively investigated the clinical records of 144 patients treated at a teaching hospital due to a tornado. Each patient’s demographic data, diagnosis, injury types, causes of injury, infection status, and outcomes were all reviewed.
Of the 144 patients, 64 (44.4%) were male, and 80 (55.6%) were female. The patients’ ages ranged from 2 months to 94 years; 91 (63.19%) were admitted within the first 12 h after the disaster. The most frequently injured sites were the body surfaces (24.48%), followed by the limbs and pelvis (21.79%) and chest (20.3%). Soft-tissue injuries and fractures were the most frequent injuries. Traumatic brain injuries were the main causes of death. Tornado-related injuries were primarily caused by flying/falling bricks, wood, and glass. Twenty-three (15.9%) patients suffered from infections, which consisted mainly of skin/soft tissue infections and pneumonia.
Destructive tornadoes often cause heavy casualties with little warning. Medical aid agencies must be prepared to accommodate the massive numbers of injured patients after a catastrophe. Proper triage and prompt treatment of injured victims may decrease mortality. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;xx:xxx-xxx).
Biochar conversion from corn stover was evaluated under various process conditions, and the absorption capacity of biochar was investigated for the removal of oxytetracycline in wastewater. Biochar was prepared at lower carbonization temperatures (200–500 °C) and was used in three different concentrations of chemical oxygen wastewater. The results showed that the biochar prepared at the temperature range of 200–500 °C had a faster sorption rate and shorter sorption equilibrium time compared to biochar produced at higher temperatures. The longest time to reach sorption equilibrium was 9 h for biochar obtained at 200 °C. However, the biochar prepared at 500 °C required only 0.5 h to reach the sorption equilibrium. The corn stover-biochar had the highest sorption capacity of 246.3 mg/g for oxytetracycline at 30 °C. The adsorption kinetics was consistent with pseudo–second-order kinetics. This study provides a theoretical basis for the conversion of corn stover into biochar as efficient sorbents.
The wake structure of an incompressible, conducting, viscous fluid past an electrically insulating sphere affected by a transverse magnetic field is investigated numerically over flow regimes including steady and unsteady laminar flows at Reynolds numbers up to 300. For a steady axisymmetric flow affected by a transverse magnetic field, the wake structure is deemed to be a double plane symmetric state. For a periodic flow, unsteady vortex shedding is first suppressed and transitions to a steady plane symmetric state and then to a double plane symmetric pattern. Wake structures in the range
without a magnetic field have a symmetry plane. An angle
exists between the orientation of this symmetry plane and the imposed transverse magnetic field. For a given transverse magnetic field, the final wake structure is found to be independent of the initial flow configuration with a different angle
. However, the orientation of the symmetry plane tends to be perpendicular to the magnetic field, which implies that the transverse magnetic field can control the orientation of the wake structure of a free-moving sphere and change the direction of its horizontal motion by a field–wake–trajectory control mechanism. An interesting ‘reversion phenomenon’ is found, where the wake structure of the sphere at a higher Reynolds number and a certain magnetic interaction parameter (
) corresponds to a lower Reynolds number with a lower
value. Furthermore, the drag coefficient is proportional to
for weak magnetic fields or to
for strong magnetic fields, where the threshold value between these two regimes is approximately
Existing data on folate status and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) prognosis are scarce. We prospectively examined whether serum folate concentrations at diagnosis were associated with liver cancer-specific survival (LCSS) and overall survival (OS) among 982 patients with newly diagnosed, previously untreated HCC, who were enrolled in the Guangdong Liver Cancer Cohort (GLCC) study between September 2013 and February 2017. Serum folate concentrations were measured using chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Cox proportional hazards models were performed to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI by sex-specific quartile of serum folate. Compared with patients in the third quartile of serum folate, patients in the lowest quartile had significantly inferior LCSS (HR = 1·48; 95 % CI 1·05, 2·09) and OS (HR = 1·43; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·99) after adjustment for non-clinical and clinical prognostic factors. The associations were not significantly modified by sex, age at diagnosis, alcohol drinking status and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage. However, there were statistically significant interactions on both multiplicative and additive scale between serum folate and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels or smoking status and the associations of lower serum folate with worse LCSS and OS were only evident among patients with CRP > 3·0 mg/l or current smokers. An inverse association with LCSS were also observed among patients with liver damage score ≥3. These results suggest that lower serum folate concentrations at diagnosis are independently associated with worse HCC survival, most prominently among patients with systemic inflammation and current smokers. A future trial of folate supplementation seems to be promising in HCC patients with lower folate status.
Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder with high heritability and polygenic inheritance. Multimodal neuroimaging studies have also indicated that abnormalities of brain structure and function are a plausible neurobiological characterisation of schizophrenia. However, the polygenic effects of schizophrenia on these imaging endophenotypes have not yet been fully elucidated.
To investigate the effects of polygenic risk for schizophrenia on the brain grey matter volume and functional connectivity, which are disrupted in schizophrenia.
Genomic and neuroimaging data from a large sample of Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia (N = 509) and healthy controls (N = 502) were included in this study. We examined grey matter volume and functional connectivity via structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. Using the data from a recent meta-analysis of a genome-wide association study that comprised a large number of Chinese people, we calculated a polygenic risk score (PGRS) for each participant.
The imaging genetic analysis revealed that the individual PGRS showed a significantly negative correlation with the hippocampal grey matter volume and hippocampus–medial prefrontal cortex functional connectivity, both of which were lower in the people with schizophrenia than in the controls. We also found that the observed neuroimaging measures showed weak but similar changes in unaffected first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia.
These findings suggested that genetically influenced brain grey matter volume and functional connectivity may provide important clues for understanding the pathological mechanisms of schizophrenia and for the early diagnosis of schizophrenia.
Penetrative turbulent Rayleigh–Bénard convection which depends on the density maximum of water near
is studied using two-dimensional and three-dimensional direct numerical simulations. The working fluid is water near
with Prandtl number
. The considered Rayleigh numbers
. The density inversion parameter
varies from 0 to 0.9. It is found that the ratio of the top and bottom thermal boundary-layer thicknesses (
) increases with increasing
, and the relationship between
seems to be independent of
. The centre temperature
is enhanced compared to that of Oberbeck–Boussinesq cases, as
is related to
is also found to have a universal relationship with
which is independent of
. Both the Nusselt number
and the Reynolds number
decrease with increasing
, the normalized Nusselt number
and Reynolds number
also have universal relationships with
which seem to be independent of both
and the aspect ratio
. The scaling exponents of
are found to be insensitive to
despite of the remarkable change of the flow organizations.
In this paper, high-gain cavity backed patch antenna arrays are proposed based on low temperature co-fired ceramic technology at 140 GHz. By introducing a substrate integrated cavity to the patch antenna element, the gain is enhanced by 3.3 dB. Moreover, a rectangular ring is loaded around the patch for better impedance matching and further gain enhancement. The final simulated maximum gain of the proposed antenna element is 9.8 dBi. Based on the proposed high-gain antenna element, a 4 × 4-element array and an 8 × 8- element array are presented. The 4 × 4-element array shows a measured maximum gain of 16.9 dBi with 9.5 GHz bandwidth (136.2–145.7 GHz) and the 8 × 8-element array shows a measured maximum gain of 21.8 dBi with 9.8 GHz bandwidth(136.7–146.5 GHz), respectively.
Nutrition therapy is considered an important treatment of burn patients. The aim of the study was to delineate the nutritional support in severe burn patients and to investigate association between nutritional practice and clinical outcomes. Severe burn patients were enrolled (n 100). In 90 % of the cases, the burn injury covered above 70 % of the total body surface area. Mean interval from injury to nutrition start was 2·4 (sd 1·1) d. Sixty-seven patients were initiated with enteral nutrition (EN) with a median time of 1 d from injury to first feed. Twenty-two patients began with parenteral nutrition (PN). During the study, thirty-two patients developed EN intolerance. Patients received an average of about 70 % of prescribed energy and protein. Patients with EN providing <30 % energy had significantly higher 28- d and in-hospital mortality than patients with EN providing more than 30 % of energy. Mortality at 28 d was 11 % and in-hospital mortality was 45 %. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that EN providing <30 % energy and septic shock were independent risk factors for 28- d prognosis. EN could be initiated early in severe burn patients. Majority patients needed PN supplementation for energy requirement and EN feeding intolerance. Post-pyloric feeding is more efficient than gastric feeding in EN tolerance and energy supplement. It is difficult for severe burn patients to obtain enough feeding, especially in the early stage of the disease. More than 2 weeks of underfeeding is harmful to recovery.
Chickenpox is a common acute and highly contagious disease in childhood; moreover, there is currently no targeted treatment. Carrying out an early warning on chickenpox plays an important role in taking targeted measures in advance as well as preventing the outbreak of the disease. In recent years, the infectious disease dynamic model has been widely used in the research of various infectious diseases. The logistic differential equation model can well demonstrate the epidemic characteristics of epidemic outbreaks, gives the point at which the early epidemic rate changes from slow to fast. Therefore, our study aims to use the logistic differential equation model to explore the epidemic characteristics and early-warning time of varicella. Meanwhile, the data of varicella cases were collected from first week of 2008 to 52nd week of 2017 in Changsha. Finally, our study found that the logistic model can be well fitted with varicella data, besides the model illustrated that there are two peaks of varicella at each year in Changsha City. One is the peak in summer–autumn corresponding to the 8th–38th week; the other is in winter–spring corresponding to the time from the 38th to the seventh week next year. The ‘epidemic acceleration week’ average value of summer–autumn and winter–spring are about the 16th week (ranging from the 15th to 17th week) and 45th week (ranging from the 44th to 47th week), respectively. What is more, taking warning measures during the acceleration week, the preventive effect will be delayed; thus, we recommend intervene during recommended warning weeks which are the 15th and 44th weeks instead.
When the Galileo number is below the first bifurcation, the instability and transition of a vertical ascension or the fall of a free sphere affected by a vertical magnetic field are investigated numerically. A compact model is used to explain that the magnetic field can destabilize the fluid–solid system. When the interaction parameter exceeds a critical value, the sphere trajectory is transitioned from a steady vertical trajectory to a steady oblique one. Furthermore, the trajectory will remain vertical at a sufficiently large magnetic field because of a double effect of the magnetic field on the fluid–solid system. Under the influence of an external vertical magnetic field, four wake patterns at the rear of the sphere are found and the physical behaviour of the free sphere is independent of the density ratio. The wake or trajectory of the free sphere is only determined by the Galileo number
and the interaction parameter
. A close relationship between the streamwise vorticity and the sphere motion is found. An interesting ‘agglomeration phenomenon’ is also found, which shows that the vertical velocities are agglomerated into a point for a certain magnetic field regardless of the Galileo number and satisfy a scaling law
. The principal results of the present work are summarized in a map of regimes in the
Astrophysical collisionless shocks are amazing phenomena in space and astrophysical plasmas, where supersonic flows generate electromagnetic fields through instabilities and particles can be accelerated to high energy cosmic rays. Until now, understanding these micro-processes is still a challenge despite rich astrophysical observation data have been obtained. Laboratory astrophysics, a new route to study the astrophysics, allows us to investigate them at similar extreme physical conditions in laboratory. Here we will review the recent progress of the collisionless shock experiments performed at SG-II laser facility in China. The evolution of the electrostatic shocks and Weibel-type/filamentation instabilities are observed. Inspired by the configurations of the counter-streaming plasma flows, we also carry out a novel plasma collider to generate energetic neutrons relevant to the astrophysical nuclear reactions.
This Research Communication describes the polymorphisms in the coding region of DGAT1 gene in Riverine buffalo, Swamp buffalo and crossbred buffalo, and associations between polymorphisms and milk production performance in Riverine buffalo. Two polymorphisms of DGAT1were identified, located in exon 13 and exon 17, respectively. The distribution of the genotypes of the two SNP loci in different buffalo population varied, especially the polymorphism located in exon 13 which was not found in the Swamp buffalo. Moreover, SNP located in exon 17 was a nonsynonymous switch resulting in the animo acid sequence changed from an arginine (Arg) to a histidine (His) at position 484. Both SNPs were in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium, and the polymorphism of g.8330T>C in the exon 13 was significantly associated with peak milk yield, total milk yield and protein percentage. The C variant was associated with an increase in milk yield and peak yield but less in protein percentage compared with the T variant. The polymorphisms of g.9046T>C in exon 17 were significantly associated with fat percentage, in that the buffaloes with TT genotype had a significantly higher fat percentage than those with CC genotype. These findings reveal the difference in the genetic evolution of the DGAT1 between Riverine buffalo and Swamp buffalo, and provide evidence that the DGAT1 gene has potential effects for Riverine buffalo milk production traits, which can be used as a candidate gene for marker-assisted selection in buffalo breeding.
This paper presents a cavity-backed dual-slot antenna in 0.13-μm SiGe BiCMOS technology. The dual-slot structure is excited by a cross-shaped strip line and a cavity which is formed by the topmost metal layer connected to the bottom metal layer through vias in between. By adopting dual-slot and cross-shaped feed line, the bandwidth is significantly enhanced by 196% compared with the single-slot antenna with straight feed line. The reason for bandwidth enhancement has been analyzed. The proposed antenna shows a measured impedance bandwidth of 15.2 GHz from 248.2 to 263.4 GHz for |S11| < −10 dB. The simulated and measured peak gains of the cavity-backed dual-slot antenna are −1.3 and −2.1 dBi, respectively. The simulated radiation efficiency is 31.1%. The total size of the antenna is 0.46 mm × 0.48 mm.
The influence of tilt on flow reversals in two-dimensional thermal convection in rectangular cells with two typical aspect ratios,
and 2, are investigated by means of direct numerical simulations. For
, tilt tends to suppress flow reversals. However, it is found that flow reversals characterized by two main rolls are promoted by tilt for
, which are even observed for some cases of small Prandtl numbers (
) and large tilt angles (
). Different from level cases where the four corner rolls all have opportunities to grow and trigger a flow reversal, the reversals in an anticlockwise tilted cell with
are always led by the growth of the bottom-right or the top-left corner roll. Tilt is favourable for the growth of the bottom-right or the top-left corner roll and thus for breaking the balance between the two main rolls and triggering a flow reversal. The mode decomposition analysis shows that the appearance of the intermediate single-roll mode is crucial for reversals, and flow reversals in a tilted cell with
can be viewed as a mode competition process between single-roll mode and horizontally adjacent double-roll mode. They can only occur in a limited range of
where the two modes have comparable strength. Furthermore, the Nusselt numbers at the hot plate
and at the cold plate
behave differently during a flow reversal for
due to the preference of single corner roll growth.
We present laboratory measurement and theoretical analysis of silicon K-shell lines in plasmas produced by Shenguang II laser facility, and discuss the application of line ratios to diagnose the electron density and temperature of laser plasmas. Two types of shots were carried out to interpret silicon plasma spectra under two conditions, and the spectra from 6.6 Å to 6.85 Å were measured. The radiative-collisional code based on the flexible atomic code (RCF) is used to identify the lines, and it also well simulates the experimental spectra. Satellite lines, which are populated by dielectron capture and large radiative decay rate, influence the spectrum profile significantly. Because of the blending of lines, the traditional
value are not applicable in diagnosing electron temperature and density of plasma. We take the contribution of satellite lines into the calculation of line ratios of He-
lines, and discuss their relations with the electron temperature and density.