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With the dangerous and troublesome nature of hollow defects inside building structures, hollowness inspection has always been a challenge in the field of construction quality assessment. Several methods have been proposed for inspecting hollowness inside concrete structures. These methods have shown great advantages compared to manual inspection but still lack autonomy and have several limitations. In this paper, we propose a range-point migration-based non-contact hollowness inspection system with sensor fusion of ultra-wide-band radar and laser-based depth camera to extract both outer surface and inner hollowness information accurately and efficiently. The simulation result evaluates the performance of the system based on the original range-point migration algorithm, and our proposed one and the result of our system show great competitiveness. Several simulation experiments of structures that are very common in reality are carried out to draw more convincing conclusions about the system. At the same time, a set of laboratory-made concrete components were used as experimental objects for the robotic system. Although still accompanied by some problems, these experiments demonstrate the availability of an automated hollow-core detection system.
It has been suggested that added sugar intake is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, previous studies only focused on sugar-sweetened beverages; the evidence for associations with total added sugars and their sources is scarce. This study aimed to examine the associations of total added sugars, their physical forms (liquid v. solid) and food sources with risk of NAFLD among adults in Tianjin, China. We used data from 15 538 participants, free of NAFLD, other liver diseases, CVD, cancer or diabetes at baseline (2013–2018 years). Added sugar intake was estimated from a validated 100-item FFQ. NAFLD was diagnosed by ultrasonography after exclusion of other causes of liver diseases. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were fitted to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and corresponding 95 % CI for NAFLD risk with added sugar intake. During a median follow-up of 4·2 years, 3476 incident NAFLD cases were documented. After adjusting for age, sex, BMI and its change from baseline to follow-up, lifestyle factors, personal and family medical history and overall diet quality, the multivariable HR of NAFLD risk were 1·18 (95 % CI 1·06, 1·32) for total added sugars, 1·20 (95 % CI 1·08, 1·33) for liquid added sugars and 0·96 (95 % CI 0·86, 1·07) for solid added sugars when comparing the highest quartiles of intake with the lowest quartiles of intake. In this prospective cohort of Chinese adults, higher intakes of total added sugars and liquid added sugars, but not solid added sugars, were associated with a higher risk of NAFLD.
Late Palaeozoic igneous rock associations in response to subduction, accretion, and final closure of the eastern Palaeo-Asian Ocean play a significant role in understanding the geodynamic evolution of the southeastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt. Previous studies have identified a Permian arc magmatic belt associated with the southward-dipping subduction of the eastern Palaeo-Asian Ocean along the Solonker–Changchun suture zone. The genetic mechanism and associated geodynamic settings are of great importance in deciphering the evolution of the eastern Palaeo-Asian Ocean. This paper presents zircon U–Pb–Hf isotope and whole-rock geochemical analyses for a suite of magmatic rocks including the early Permian diorite porphyrites (ca. 281.0 Ma), andesites (ca. 276 Ma) and rhyolites (ca. 275 Ma) in the Kulun region. The diorite porphyrites and andesites have high SiO2 and total alkali contents, and low MgO contents and Mg no. values, with enrichments in large ion lithophile elements and depletions in high-field-strength elements. These geochemical characteristics, together with low-Sr and high-Yb contents, a weak concave-upward shape of middle rare earth elements and negative Eu anomalies, suggest that these intermediate igneous rocks were generated by partial melting of amphibolitic lower crust at a crustal depth of 30–40 km. The rhyolites have heterogeneous isotopic compositions, with ϵHf(t) values and TDM2 ages of –20.8 to +0.5 and 3578∼1494 Ma, implying that they were likely derived from partial melting of a mixed source dominated by recycled ancient crust with minor juvenile crustal materials. The rhyolites show potassic affinity with relatively high K2O and very low Na2O, which was attributed to liquid immiscibility of felsic magma and subsequent limited fractional crystallization of plagioclase. The regional igneous associations, metamorphic events, and coeval sedimentary rocks along the Solonker–Changchun suture zone indicate that the early Permian igneous rocks were formed in an active continental arc environment in response to southward subduction of the eastern Palaeo-Asian Ocean.
The molecular properties of the circulating causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in Wuxi remain unclear, posing diagnostic and prevention challenges. Additionally, in several regions of mainland China, the EV71 immunisation drastically reduced related cases and altered the HFMD pathogen spectrum, while the precise situation in Wuxi remained unknown. To address these issues, paediatric HFMD cases diagnosed in the clinic were enrolled and anal swabs were acquired in the spring of 2019. The 5′-UTR and VP1 genes were interpreted using RT-nPCR with degenerate primers to confirm their genotypes. Following that, the entire genome sequences of each viral type were recovered, allowing for the interpretation of several molecular properties. A total of 249 clinically confirmed HFMD cases had their anal swabs taken for viral identification, from which the genome sequences of seven genotypes were recovered. Coxsackievirus A16 is the most prevalent type, followed by Coxsackievirus A6, A10, A2, A4, A5 and Echovirus 11, all of which were genetically determined for the first time in Wuxi. Phylogenetic and recombination analyses were used to evaluate their evolutionary relationships with other strains found in other regions. Noticeably, a CVA16 subtype, responsible for a large proportion of the observed cases, phylogenetically clustered within clade B1a along with some strains from other countries, was the first one to be reported in China. Furthermore, some recombination events were inferred from strains detected in sporadic cases, particularly the recombination between CVA2 and CVA5 strains. Our investigation elucidated the multiple molecular characteristics of the HFMD causal enterovirus strains in Wuxi, underlining the potential hazards associated with these circulating viral types in the population and aiding in future surveillance and prevention of this disease.
Prospective cohort studies linking organ meat consumption and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are limited, especially in Asian populations. This study aimed to prospectively investigate the association between organ meat consumption and risk of NAFLD in a general Chinese adult population. This prospective cohort study included a total of 15 568 adults who were free of liver disease, CVD and cancer at baseline. Dietary information was collected at baseline using a validated FFQ. NAFLD was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasound after excluding other causes related to chronic liver disease. Cox proportional regression models were used to assess the association between organ meat consumption and risk of NAFLD. During a median of 4·2 years of follow-up, we identified 3604 incident NAFLD cases. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, vegetable, fruit, soft drink, seafood and red meat consumption, the multivariable hazard ratios (95 % CI) for incident NAFLD across consumption of organ meat were 1·00 (reference) for almost never, 1·04 (0·94, 1·15) for tertile 1, 1·08 (0·99, 1·19) for tertile 2 and 1·11 (1·01, 1·22) for tertile 3, respectively (Pfor trend < 0·05). Such association did not differ substantially in the sensitivity analysis. Our study indicates that organ meat consumption was related to a modestly higher risk of NAFLD among Chinese adults. Further investigations are needed to confirm this finding.
Schistosomiasis has been subjected to extensive control efforts in the People's Republic of China (China) which aims to eliminate the disease by 2030. We describe baseline results of a longitudinal cohort study undertaken in the Dongting and Poyang lakes areas of central China designed to determine the prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum in humans, animals (goats and bovines) and Oncomelania snails utilizing molecular diagnostics procedures. Data from the Chinese National Schistosomiasis Control Programme (CNSCP) were compared with the molecular results obtained.
Sixteen villages from Hunan and Jiangxi provinces were surveyed; animals were only found in Hunan. The prevalence of schistosomiasis in humans was 1.8% in Jiangxi and 8.0% in Hunan determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), while 18.3% of animals were positive by digital droplet PCR. The CNSCP data indicated that all villages harboured S. japonicum-infected individuals, detected serologically by indirect haemagglutination assay (IHA), but very few, if any, of these were subsequently positive by Kato-Katz (KK).
Based on the outcome of the IHA and KK results, the CNSCP incorporates targeted human praziquantel chemotherapy but this approach can miss some infections as evidenced by the results reported here. Sensitive molecular diagnostics can play a key role in the elimination of schistosomiasis in China and inform control measures allowing for a more systematic approach to treatment.
Late Mesozoic igneous rocks are important for deciphering the Mesozoic tectonic setting of NE China. In this paper, we present whole-rock geochemical data, zircon U–Pb ages and Lu–Hf isotope data for Early Cretaceous volcanic rocks from the Tulihe area of the northern Great Xing’an Range (GXR), with the aim of evaluating the petrogenesis and genetic relationships of these rocks, inferring crust–mantle interactions and better constraining extension-related geodynamic processes in the GXR. Zircon U–Pb ages indicate that the rhyolites and trachytic volcanic rocks formed during late Early Cretaceous time (c. 130–126 Ma). Geochemically, the highly fractionated I-type rhyolites exhibit high-K calc-alkaline, metaluminous to weakly peraluminous characteristics. They are enriched in light rare earth elements (LREEs) and large-ion lithophile elements (LILEs) but depleted in high-field-strength elements (HFSEs), with their magmatic zircons ϵHf(t) values ranging from +4.1 to +9.0. These features suggest that the rhyolites were derived from the partial melting of a dominantly juvenile, K-rich basaltic lower crust. The trachytic volcanic rocks are high-K calc-alkaline series and exhibit metaluminous characteristics. They have a wide range of zircon ϵHf(t) values (−17.8 to +12.9), indicating that these trachytic volcanic rocks originated from a dominantly lithospheric-mantle source with the involvement of asthenospheric mantle materials, and subsequently underwent extensive assimilation and fractional crystallization processes. Combining our results and the spatiotemporal migration of the late Early Cretaceous magmatic events, we propose that intense Early Cretaceous crust–mantle interaction took place within the northern GXR, and possibly the whole of NE China, and that it was related to the upwelling of asthenospheric mantle induced by rollback of the Palaeo-Pacific flat-subducting slab.
Crop wild relatives (CWRs) play a key role in crop breeding by providing beneficial trait characteristics for improvement of related crops. CWRs are more efficiently used in breeding if the plant material is genetically characterized, but the diversity in CWR genetic resources has often poorly been assessed. Seven seed collections of Musa balbisiana, an important CWR of dessert and cooking bananas, originating from three natural populations, two feral populations and two ex situ field collections were retrieved and their genetic diversity was quantified using 18 microsatellite markers to select core subsets that conserve the maximum genetic diversity. The highest genetic diversity was observed in the seed collections from natural populations of Yunnan, a region that is part of M. balbisiana's centre of origin. The seeds from the ex situ field collections were less genetically diverse, but contained unique variation with regards to the diversity in all seed collections. Seeds from feral populations displayed low genetic diversity. Core subsets that maximized genetic distance incorporated almost no seeds from the ex situ field collections. In contrast, core subsets that maximized allelic richness contained seeds from the ex situ field collections. We recommend the conservation and additional collection of seeds from natural populations, preferentially originating from the species' region of origin, and from multiple individuals in one population. We also suggest that the number of seeds used for ex situ seed bank regeneration must be much higher for the seed collections from natural populations.
We designed a resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) sol–gel ink for direct ink writing of the microlattices. To improve the formability, the fresh microlattices were strengthened by surface catalysis with HCl atmosphere. After supercritical drying and carbonization, the sample’s specific surface area was 631 m2/g and the average pore size was 3.81 nm. Both RF aerogel and carbonized RF aerogel samples had millimeter-scale pore, micron-scale pore, and nanoscale skeleton. The pore and skeleton could provide high surface area and diffusion channels, which were beneficial to the adsorption performances. The carbonized RF aerogel sample fully adsorbed Dulbecco’s modified eagle medium in 250 min, which exhibited a good capacity of quick adsorption and indicated the potential application for cell supports.
Flexible sensors are fundamental components of flexible electronics allowing a great number of applications from compliant robots to biomonitoring devices. The present work developed a carbohydrate-based elastomer (CBE) which possesses flexibility and tunable properties to meet the requirements of several sensing applications. Specifically, CBE was engineered to have high elasticity and sensing capabilities to humidity, stress and strain, enabling possible applications for monitoring physiological and external mechanical stimuli. These sensing capabilities of CBE were also adjustable to meet the requirements of applications such as electronic skin and wearable electronics.
From November 24 to December 10, 2013, the Chinese People’s Liberation Army Navy [PLA(N)] hospital ship Peace Ark was deployed to the Leyte Gulf in the Philippines to provide humanitarian medical relief in Tacloban after Typhoon Haiyan. The purpose of this study was to assess the radiological services aboard the ship to provide guidance for future missions.
A retrospective review was performed on a cohort of 109 patients who underwent digital radiography (DR) and 59 patients who underwent computed tomography (CT) scans during a 16-day period during a humanitarian medical relief mission to the Philippines. Patient demographics, DR findings, and CT findings were analyzed.
The mean age of the 109 DR patients was 39.7 years for the 64 males and 43.7 years for the 45 females. A total of 148 DR examinations were performed of the chest (n=109), extremities (n=35), and spine (n=4). The mean age of the 59 CT patients was 43.8 years for the 32 males and 49.1 years for the 27 females. A total of 72 CT scans were performed of the head and neck (n=36), thorax (n=24), abdomen (n=5), spine (n=4), and extremities (n=3). The imaging findings mainly included disaster-related and non-disaster-related fractures, pulmonary tuberculosis, pulmonary infection, acute brain infarction, intracranial hematoma, and occupying lesions.
Analysis of radiological services during a humanitarian medical relief mission to the Philippines provided meaningful information for future humanitarian medical relief missions. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:16–19)
The present study conducted a 9-week feeding trial to investigate the effects of threonine (Thr) on the digestion capacity and hepatopancreas gene expression of juvenile blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala). For this purpose, three tanks (300 litres/tank) were randomly arranged and assigned to each experimental diet. Juvenile fish were fed with diets containing graded Thr levels (0·58, 1·08, 1·58, 2·08 or 2·58 % of the diet) to apparent satiation four times daily. At the end of the feeding trial, the results indicated that hepatopancreas weight, hepatosomatic index, hepatopancreatic protein content, intestinal weight, intestosomatic index and intestinal protein content increased with increasing dietary Thr levels up to 1·58 % and thereafter decreased (P< 0·05). The activities of chymotrypsin, trypsin, amylase and lipase elevated as dietary Thr levels increased up to 1·58 % (P< 0·05), while these activities decreased in most cases after 1·58 % dietary Thr except for chymotrypsin and trypsin in the hepatopancreas (plateau 1·58–2·08 % Thr). The relative gene expression levels of chymotrypsin, trypsin, amylase, lipase, target of rapamycin and insulin-like growth factor-I were up-regulated, and the highest values were observed with 1·58 % dietary Thr or 1·58 and 2·08 % dietary Thr, whereas the relative gene expression levels of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 2 gradually decreased (P< 0·10) as dietary Thr levels increased up to 1·58 % and thereafter significantly increased (P< 0·05), which could explain that about 1·58 % dietary Thr could improve the growth and development of digestive organs and activities of digestive enzymes of juvenile blunt snout bream.
The effect of prestrain on microstructure and mechanical behavior of aged Ti–10V–2Fe–3Al alloy was investigated. The results showed that prestrain caused the tensile strength to decrease by 5%, but the elongation to fracture significantly improved by about 200%, in comparison with the unstrained samples, using a much shorter aging time. Transmission electron microscopy investigations showed that nano-sized alpha (α) particles homogeneously precipitated in the beta (β) matrix, and continuous α films formed along grain boundaries in the unstrained and aged samples. However, in the prestrained samples, the coarse stress induced martensite laths decomposed into α- and β-phases in the form of alternately arranged plates, which suppressed formation of the continuous grain boundary α films during aging. The hardness of the prestrained samples was lower than that of the unstrained samples after the same aging treatments. The enhancement of ductility can be mainly attributed to the suppression of grain boundary α films and the reduced hardness in prestrained samples.
An optimal protocol for cryopreservation of boar semen was established. First, the boar semen was pre-diluted with ZORLESCO (ZO) solution and pre-equilibrated at room temperature for 1 h. After adding extender I, spermatozoa were equilibrated at 5°C for 1.5 h; then an equal volume of extender II was added and the spermatozoa equilibrated for 2 h. The resulting spermatozoa were loaded into 0.25 ml straws, equilibrated for 10 min at 3 cm above the surface of liquid nitrogen (LN), then promptly submerged into LN. When thawing, straws were incubated in a water bath at 37°C for 30 s. This procedure yielded the highest post-thaw motility of 0.58±0.03 and plasma integrity of 63.2±1.2%, together with a normal acrosome in 51.4±2.6% of spermatozoa. Abnormal spermatozoa after freezing represented only 14.0±3.0%.
Elevated bonding temperature for interconnection deteriorates the reliability of both the device and the interconnect; hence the imperative for developing low temperature bonding methods. This study investigates the feasibility of using self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) to assist direct gold-gold bonding. This involves a simple molecular self-assembly process whereby a monolayer of alkyl chains with a sulfur end group is attached to the gold surface prior to thermocompression bonding. Using this method, we have achieved gold to gold bonding at a bonding temperature below 100°C, a significant reduction compared to the conventional bonding temperatures of above 150 °C. We attribute this temperature reduction to two properties of SAMs - (1) surface passivation of the Au surface that precludes adsorption of surface contaminants, and (2) The easy displacement of SAMs through thermal desorption just before bonding occurs. This SAMs-assisted bonding mechanism is supported by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) results.
Enamel is made up of enamel prisms separated by thin layer of organic sheaths. The mechanical properties of the prisms and the organic sheaths are obviously different from each other due to different compositions and microstructures. However, quantitative measurements of such differences have been a challenge in the past. The objective of this study is to accurately study the mechanical properties in the isolated domains within single enamel prism. The technique of nanoindentation combined with Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was employed to test the enamel specimens from mature human maxillary third molar. It was revealed that the nanohardness and elastic modulus of the sheaths were about 73.6% and 52.7% lower than those of the prisms. AFM topographies of the residual indent impressions also visually confirmed the differences. In addition to nanoindentation tests, the microstructures of enamel were carefully investigated in terms of hierarchical levels of organization to understand the structural reasons of the mechanical differences. We found a close relation between the variations of mechanical properties of enamel and its hierarchical structure. The analysis of the mechanical properties within enamel upon hierarchy is not only helpful to understand its unique property, but may also inspire ideas for the design of novel synthetic materials.
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