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To analyze the impact of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) Multidimensional Approach (IMA) and the INICC Surveillance Online System (ISOS) on central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) rates in 14 intensive care units (ICUs) in Argentina from January 2014 to April 2017.
This prospective, pre–post surveillance study of 3,940 ICU patients was conducted in 11 hospitals in 5 cities in Argentina. During our baseline evaluation, we performed outcome and process surveillance of CLABSI applying Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Health Safety Network (CDC/NHSN) definitions. During the intervention, we implemented the IMA through ISOS: (1) a bundle of infection prevention practice interventions, (2) education, (3) outcome surveillance, (4) process surveillance, (5) feedback on CLABSI rates and consequences, and (6) performance feedback of process surveillance. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed using a logistic regression model to estimate the effect of the intervention on the CLABSI rate.
During the baseline period, 5,118 CL days and 49 CLABSIs were recorded, for a rate of 9.6 CLABSIs per 1,000 central-line (CL) days. During the intervention, 15,659 CL days and 68 CLABSIs were recorded, for a rate of 4.1 CLABSIs per 1,000 CL days. The CLABSI rate was reduced by 57% (incidence density rate: 0.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.34–0.6; P<.001).
Implementing IMA through ISOS was associated with a significant reduction in the CLABSI rate in ICUs in Argentina.
The diversity and prevalence of malaria parasites of the genera Plasmodium and Haemoproteus were determined in the globally-threatened Aquatic Warbler Acrocephalus paludicola. Birds were sampled during migration in Portugal and at the wintering quarters in Senegal and parasites were detected using molecular methods. Only three generalist parasite lineages (Plasmodium) were found. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of parasites between sexes in Europe, but adults had higher prevalence than first-year birds, and birds in Europe had higher prevalence than those captured in Africa. When comparing with other Acrocephalus species and taking sample size into account, Aquatic Warblers had the lowest prevalence and, together with another threatened species, the Seychelles Warbler Acrocephalus sechellensis, the lowest diversity of malaria parasites. We hypothesize that the low diversity of parasites and absence of specialist lineages of Aquatic Warblers are caused by its small population size and fragmented distribution. Furthermore, Aquatic Warblers’ extreme habitat specialization may decrease their exposure to malaria parasites, but other explanations such as high mortality (which would constraint the sampling of infected birds) or, in contrast, very efficient immunological system in clearing the infections cannot be ruled out. This study contributes to explain variation in prevalence and diversity of malaria parasites among hosts.
Although several meta-analyses have investigated the efficacy of psychological treatments for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), there is not yet a consensus on the most efficacious treatment components. A meta-analysis was carried out to examine the efficacy of the different treatment techniques used in the psychological interventions of pediatric OCD. An exhaustive literature search from 1983 to February 2014 enabled us to locate 46 published articles that applied some kind of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). For each group the effect size was the standardized pretest-posttest mean change, and it was calculated for obsessive-compulsive symptoms and for other outcome measures. The results clearly showed large effect sizes for CBT in reducing obsessive-compulsive symptoms and, to a lesser extent, other outcome measures (d+ = 1.860; 95% CI: 1.639; 2.081). The most promising treatments are those based on multicomponent programs comprising ERP, cognitive strategies, and relapse prevention. The analysis of other potential moderator variables and the implications for clinical practice are discussed.
In this contribution, the influence of different substrates and textures on the reversible and irreversible polarization in Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) thin films will be presented. One possible scenario to explain the origin of the ferroelectric hysteresis is the notion that the domain walls move through a potential generated by their interaction with randomly distributed defects of the matrix. This potential then gives rise to reversible and irreversible changes in the ferroelectric polarization. The exact features of the interaction potential also depend on the stress state of the material which can be influenced by a suitable choice of the substrate.
To study the substrate influence, PZT thin films have been deposited on commercial Si wafers, MgO and SrTiO3 single crystals. Electrical characterization methods (hysteresis and small signal capacitance measurements) have been used to extract information on reversible and irreversible polarization contributions.
We employed a Monte Carlo technique to simulate the effect of (1) the anisotropic grain boundary energy in the film and (2) the large misfit between the film and substrate on the grain growth of  textured Yba2Cu3Ov7-x (YBCO) films. In terms of remaining grain boundaries of certain misorientations, the simulation results concur with the experimental observation of preferred grain orientations of YBCO on various substrates, such as (001) MgO and (001) Yttria stabilized Zirconia (YSZ). Three factors were identified to influence the grain growth of these  tilt boundaries in the simulation and could help to elucidate the origin of special misorientations observed experimentally. These are (1) the depth of local minima in boundary energy vs. misorientation curve, (2) the number of possible combinations of coincidence epitaxy (CE) orientations contributing to the exact misorientation for each of the high angle but low energy (HABLE) boundaries, and (3) the number of possible combinations of coincidence epitaxy CE orientations within the angular ranges near each of the HABLE boundaries.
Seebeck coefficient S(T), thermal conductivity κ(T) and electrical resistivity ρ(T) measurements on polycrystalline La1.85Sr0.15CuO4-δ (LSCO) compounds grown by solid-state reaction method were carried out in the temperature range between 100 and 290K. The obtained samples were submitted to annealing processes of different duration in order to modify their oxygen stoichiometry. The Seebeck coefficient is positive over the measured temperature range and its magnitude increases with the annealing time up to reach values close to 150 µV/K. The electrical resistivity exhibits a metallic behavior, in all samples, ρ(T) takes values less than 1mΩ-cm. As the annealing time increases, the total thermal conductivity increases up to values close to 3 W/K-m. From S(T), κ(T) and ρ(T) data, the thermoelectric power factor (PF) and the dimensionless figure of merit (ZT) were determined. These parameters reach maximum values around 25 µW/K2-cm and 0.18, respectively. The observed behavior in the transport properties become these compounds potential thermoelectric materials, which could be used in low temperature thermoelectric applications.
Measurements of Seebeck coefficient, S(T) and electrical resistivity, ρ(T) on polycrystalline La2−xSrxCuO4+d(LSCO) (0<x≤0.2) samples are reported. The Seebeck coefficient is positive in whole measured temperature range (77K and 300K) and it decreases with Sr content. At room temperature S(T) changes from 400 μ/K for the samples with the lowest levels of Sr to 30 μV/K for the samples with the highest Sr levels. The behavior of S(T) fits to Heikes model, which describes the behavior of Seebeck coefficient in systems where the correlated hopping is present. With the Sr content, the electrical resistivity changes its behavior from semiconducting to metallic and it took values from 2.4 to 10−3 Ωcm. From S(T) and rho(T) measurements the thermoelectric power factor, PF was obtained. The maximum values for PF were about 5 μW/K2cm in the samples where x= 0.03, which are comparable to the typical values for conventional thermoelectric semiconductors. The structural and morphological properties of the samples were studied by x-ray diffraction analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) respectively. The behavior of transport properties opens de possibility of considering this family of perovskite-compounds as a thermoelectric material which works below room temperature.
Polycrystalline ceramics with nominal composition of Ca3-xYxCo4O9+δ (0≤x≤0.10) were grown using the citrate-complex method. Thermoelectric properties were studied using Seebeck coefficient S(T) and electrical resistivity ρ(T) measurements. These transport properties were studied in the temperature range between 100 and 290K. For low doping levels in Y substituted samples (x≤0.06) the magnitude of S(T) and ρ(T) decreases with yttrium content. The temperature behavior of S(T) and ρ(T) was interpreted in terms of the small-polaron hopping mechanism. From S(T) and ρ(T) data it was possible to calculate the thermoelectric power factor PF, which reaches maximum values close to 23 μW/K2-cm. These values become these compounds promissory thermoelectric compounds for use in low temperature thermoelectric applications.
Thermoelectric properties of polycrystalline La0.75Sr0.25Co1-xMnxO3-δ (0<x<0.08) (LSCoO-Mn) compounds have been studied. The samples were grown by solid-state reaction method; their transport properties were studied in the temperature range between 100 and 290K, as a function of temperature and the manganese content. The Seebeck coefficient (S) is positive over the measured temperature range and its magnitude increases with the manganese content up to values close to 160 μV/K. The electrical resistivity (ρ) goes from metallic to semiconducting behavior as the Mn level increases, at room temperature, ρ(T) exhibit values less than 4mΩ-cm. From S(T), ρ(T) and κ(T) data, the thermoelectric power factor and the figure of merit were determined. These performance parameters reach maximum values around 18 μW/K2-cm and 0.2, respectively. The observed behavior in the transport properties become these compounds potential thermoelectric materials, which could be used in thermoelectric applications.
In this paper, the relations between academic goals and various indicators that define the quality of the learning process are analyzed. The purpose was to determine to what extent high, moderate, or low levels of academic goals were positively or negatively related to effort regulation, the value assigned to academic tasks, meta-cognitive self-regulation, self-efficacy, beliefs about learning control, and management of time and study environment. The investigation was carried out with a sample of 632 university students (70% female and 30% male) and mean age of 21.22 (SD=2.2).The results show that learning goals, or task orientation, are positively related to all the indictors of learning quality considered herein. Although for other kinds of goals—work-avoidance goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals—significant relations were not found with all the indicators, there was a similar tendency of significant results in all cases; the higher the levels of these goals, the lower the levels of the indicators of learning quality.
The preventative effects of the probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum CECT5716 were evaluated in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) model of septic shock in mice. The probiotic was administered suspended in drinking water at the final concentration of 108 colony-forming units/ml for 2 weeks before the induction of an endotoxic shock by an intraperitoneal injection of LPS (400 μg/200 μl per mouse). Blood and different organs were collected after 24 h to evaluate the severity of the endotoxic shock and the preventative effects of the probiotic. L. fermentum reduced TNF-α levels in blood, which promotes the major alterations observed during septic shock, as well as the infiltration of activated neutrophils into the lungs. Furthermore, free radical overproduction and oxidative stress were associated with a significant decrease in hepatic glutathione levels in septic mice, and with an excessive NO production attributed to the induction of the inducible isoform of NO synthase (iNOS). In fact, hepatic glutathione levels were significantly increased in the group of mice receiving the probiotic, and the increased iNOS expression both in the colon and lungs was down-regulated in those mice treated with L. fermentum. Finally, pre-treatment with L. fermentum may also exert its protective action modulating the expression of different cytokines in splenocyte-derived T cells such us IL-2, IL-5, IL-6 or IL-10. In conclusion, pre-treatment with L. fermentum may exert its protective action against LPS-induced organ damage in mice by a combination of several actions including its antioxidant properties and by reduction of the synthesis of the pro-inflammatory TNF-α and IL-6.
We prove that a complex Banach space X is a Hilbert space if (and only if) the Banach algebra (of all bounded linear operator on X) is unitary and there exists a conjugate-linear algebra involution • on satisfying T• = T−1 for every surjective linear isometry T on X. Appropriate variants for real spaces of the result just quoted are also proven. Moreover, we show that a real Banach space X is a Hilbert space if and only if it is a real JB*-triple and is -unitary, where stands for the dual weak-operator topology.