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We present an investigation of rapidly rotating (small Rossby number
) stratified turbulence where the stratification strength is varied from weak (large Froude number
) to strong (
). The investigation is set in the context of a reduced model derived from the Boussinesq equations that retains anisotropic inertia-gravity waves with order-one frequencies and highlights a regime of wave–eddy interactions. Numerical simulations of the reduced model are performed where energy is injected by a stochastic forcing of vertical velocity, which forces wave modes only. The simulations reveal two regimes: characterized by the presence of well-formed, persistent and thin turbulent layers of locally weakened stratification at small Froude numbers, and by the absence of layers at large Froude numbers. Both regimes are characterized by a large-scale barotropic dipole enclosed by small-scale turbulence. When the Reynolds number is not too large, a direct cascade of barotropic kinetic energy is observed, leading to total energy equilibration. We examine net energy exchanges that occur through vortex stretching and vertical buoyancy flux and diagnose the horizontal scales active in these exchanges. We find that the baroclinic motions inject energy directly to the largest scales of the barotropic mode, implying that the large-scale barotropic dipole is not the end result of an inverse cascade within the barotropic mode.
The unsteady behaviour of a massively separated, pressure-induced turbulent separation bubble (TSB) is investigated experimentally using high-speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) and piezo-resistive pressure sensors. The TSB is generated on a flat test surface by a combination of adverse and favourable pressure gradients. The Reynolds number based on the momentum thickness of the incoming boundary layer is 5000 and the free stream velocity is
. The proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is used to separate the different unsteady modes in the flow. The first POD mode contains approximately 30 % of the total kinetic energy and is shown to describe a low-frequency contraction and expansion, called ‘breathing’, of the TSB. This breathing is responsible for a variation in TSB size of approximately 90 % of its average length. It also generates low-frequency wall-pressure fluctuations that are mainly felt upstream of the mean detachment and downstream of the mean reattachment. A medium-frequency unsteadiness, which is linked to the convection of large-scale vortices in the shear layer bounding the recirculation zone and their shedding downstream of the TSB, is also observed. When scaled with the vorticity thickness of the shear layer and the convection velocity of the structures, this medium frequency is very close to the characteristic frequency of vortices convected in turbulent mixing layers. The streamwise position of maximum vertical turbulence intensity generated by the convected structures is located downstream of the mean reattachment line and corresponds to the position of maximum wall-pressure fluctuations.
Compositional interdiffusion in Al0.3Ga0.7As/GaAs superlattice structures with equal 3.5 nm barrier and well widths induced by Si focused ion beam implantation and subsequent rapid thermal annealing has been modeled. A strong depth dependence of the mixing process is observed at a Si++ energy of 100 keV and at a dose of 1×1014 cm−2; this depth dependence is modeled by considering the second derivative of the vacancy profile. That is the maximum in the vacancy injection generated by the transient vacancy concentration gradient. We have included the dynamics of the spatial vacancy profile in the model and find good agreement with experimental results.
Interdiffusion across the well/barrier interfaces modifies the subband structure in AlGaAs/GaAs single quantum well (QW) structures. We have investigated the interrelated changes in both confinement energy of the subband states and the composition dependence of the bandgap energy in the QW, both of which are a strong function of the initial well width. Higher order transitions are found to be more sensitive than the ground state transitions to interdiffusion especially during the early stages of interdiffusion. These calculations model the experimental measurements (photoluminescence and photoreflectance) which are used to characterize interdiffused QW structures.
Interband transitions of a series of as-grown AlGaAs/GaAs quantum well structures grown by MOVPE have been studied using photoreflectance to determine their well shape. The transition energies calculated using three different quantum well profiles are compared to those obtained using photoreflectance. The results show that the shape of these structures is best represented by an exponential potential profile.
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