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The present study aimed to evaluate the precision, ease of use and likelihood of future use of portion size estimation aids (PSEA).
A range of PSEA were used to estimate the serving sizes of a range of commonly eaten foods and rated for ease of use and likelihood of future usage.
For each food, participants selected their preferred PSEA from a range of options including: quantities and measures; reference objects; measuring; and indicators on food packets. These PSEA were used to serve out various foods (e.g. liquid, amorphous, and composite dishes). Ease of use and likelihood of future use were noted. The foods were weighed to determine the precision of each PSEA.
Males and females aged 18–64 years (n 120).
The quantities and measures were the most precise PSEA (lowest range of weights for estimated portion sizes). However, participants preferred household measures (e.g. 200 ml disposable cup) – deemed easy to use (median rating of 5), likely to use again in future (all scored either 4 or 5 on a scale from 1=‘not very likely’ to 5=‘very likely to use again’) and precise (narrow range of weights for estimated portion sizes). The majority indicated they would most likely use the PSEA preparing a meal (94 %), particularly dinner (86 %) in the home (89 %; all P<0·001) for amorphous grain foods.
Household measures may be precise, easy to use and acceptable aids for estimating the appropriate portion size of amorphous grain foods.
To (i) explore the factors influencing family out-of-home (OH) eating events and (ii) identify possible opportunities for food businesses to support families in making healthier OH choices.
Focus group discussions were conducted with parents (six to eight participants per group) and friendship pair discussions (informal interviews with two children who are friends) were conducted with children (5–12 years) throughout the island of Ireland. Both discussions were audio-recorded and analysed using a thematic content analysis.
Eight focus groups and sixteen friendship pairs were conducted in Northern Ireland and sixteen focus groups and thirty-two friendship pairs were conducted in the Republic of Ireland.
Purposive sampling was used to recruit a sample of non-related parents and children that represented equal numbers of gender, age, socio-economic status and demographic backgrounds.
The main, overarching theme was that families perceived OH eating to be a treat, while health was not currently a key priority for many parents and children. Children were reported to have most responsibility for their own food choice decisions in this environment, with taste and food neophobia having the greatest influences. Parents believed that if food businesses could meet parent and child priorities in addition to health influences, e.g. change cooking methods, and increase flexibility, then families would be more likely to patronise these establishments.
The entire family OH eating experience needs to be considered when developing public health interventions and this research has highlighted key opportunities that caterers could employ to support healthier family OH food choices.
To assess the nutritional adequacy of Seychellois children in relation to nutrients reported to be important for cognitive development.
Dietary intakes were assessed by 4 d weighed food diaries and analysed using dietary analysis software (WISP version 3·0; Tinuviel Software, UK). Individual nutrient intakes were adjusted to usual intakes and, in order to investigate adequacy, were compared with the UK Estimated Average Requirements for children aged 4–6 years.
Children 5 years old were followed up as part of the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study (SCDNS), located in the high-fish-consuming population of Mahé, Republic of Seychelles.
Analysis was carried out on a sample of 229 children (118 boys, 111 girls).
Children consumed a diet of which fortified cereal and milk products contributed the most to nutrient intakes. The majority (≥80 %) of children met requirements for several nutrients important for child development including Fe, folate and Se. Adjusted dietary intakes of Cu, Zn, iodine, niacin and vitamin A were below the Estimated Average Requirement or Recommended Nutrient Intake. Mean adjusted energy intakes (boys 4769 kJ/d (1139·84 kcal/d), girls 4759 kJ/d (1137·43 kcal/d)) were lower than the estimated energy requirement (boys 5104 kJ/d (1220 kcal/d), girls 5042 kJ/d (1205 kcal/d)) for 88 % of boys and 86 % of girls.
Nutrition was adequate for most children within the SCDNS cohort. Low intakes of some nutrients (including Zn, niacin and vitamin A) could reflect nutritional database inaccuracies, but may require further investigation. The study provides valuable information on the adequacy of intakes of nutrients which could affect the growth and development of Seychellois children.
To establish the Fe status of pregnant women and their neonates in the Republic of Seychelles.
A prospective study.
Republic of Seychelles.
Pregnant women were recruited and blood samples taken at enrolment and post-delivery along with cord blood samples. Ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) were measured in maternal (n 220) and cord blood (n 123) samples.
Maternal Fe deficiency (ferritin < 15 ng/ml, sTfR > 28 nmol/l) was present in 6 % of subjects at enrolment and in 20 % at delivery. There was no significant decrease in maternal ferritin. A significant increase in sTfR was observed between enrolment and delivery (P < 0·001). Maternal BMI and use of Fe supplements at 28 weeks’ gestation were associated with improved maternal Fe status at delivery, whereas parity had a negative effect on sTfR and ferritin at delivery.
Fe status of pregnant Seychellois women was, on average, within normal ranges. The incidence of Fe deficiency throughout pregnancy in this population was similar to that in a Westernised population. Increased awareness of the importance of adequate Fe intake during pregnancy, particularly in multiparous women, is warranted.
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