Many people sense that Pope Francis is doing something new. Not only theologians, but ordinary Catholics, people of other faiths, and secular observers are listening to this pope in a new way because he seems different from previous popes. Some argue that though Francis’ tone is distinct, much of what he is saying and doing was said and done by his predecessors. Others warn that while the new tone may be encouraging, moral norms (especially those related to sex, marriage, and gender) have not changed. James Bretzke does a great service by amassing large amounts of data to show that the “Francis Effect” or difference is both substantive and real.