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Simulation is used in many aspects of medical training but less so for echocardiography instruction in paediatric cardiology. We report our experience with the introduction of simulator-based echocardiography training at Weill Cornell Medicine for paediatric cardiology fellows of the New York–Presbyterian Hospital of Columbia University and Weill Cornell Medicine. Knowledge of CHD and echocardiographic performance improved following simulation-based training. Simulator training in echocardiography can be an effective addition to standard training for paediatric cardiology trainees.
The purpose of this study was to provide information on the effect of prenatal depression and anxiety as assessed in the context of obstetrical care on key infant outcomes (gestational age at birth, birth weight, and APGAR scores), while simultaneously considering interactions with maternal medical conditions among primarily Medicaid enrollees.
Obstetrical medical records of 419 women presenting consecutively for prenatal care at a health system serving primarily Medicaid patients were examined. Information on maternal characteristics (age, race, education) and maternal medical health (BMI, high blood pressure, diabetes, and kidney problems), as well as mental health information, was extracted. Depression was assessed as part of routine care using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), and any documentation of depression or anxiety by the obstetrics clinician was also used in the analyses.
Approximately one-third of the sample showed some evidence of prenatal depression, either based on PHQ-9 score (≥10) or clinician documentation of depression, and close to 10% showed evidence of anxiety. Multivariate analyses showed significant interactions between depression and anxiety on gestational age and birth weight, between depression and high blood pressure on gestational age, and also between anxiety and kidney problems on gestational age.
Among this sample, the effect of maternal depression and anxiety on birth outcomes was more evident when considered along with maternal chronic medical conditions. This information may be used to assist prenatal care clinicians to develop risk assessment based on knowledge of multiple risk factors that may exert and additive influence on poor birth outcomes.
Despite recent concerns about the high prevalence of sub-clinical vitamin D deficiency in adolescents, relatively few studies have investigated the underlying reasons. The objective of the present study was to investigate the prevalence and predictors of vitamin D inadequacy among a large representative sample of adolescents living in Northern Ireland (54–55°N). Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) were analysed by enzyme-immunoassay in a subgroup of 1015 of the Northern Ireland Young Hearts 2000 cohort; a cross-sectional study of 12 and 15 year-old boys and girls. Overall mean 25(OH)D concentration throughout the year was 64·3 (range 5–174) nmol/l; 56·7 and 78·1 nmol/l during winter and summer, respectively. Reported intakes of vitamin D were very low (median 1·7 μg/d). Of those adolescents studied, 3 % and 36 % were vitamin D deficient and inadequate respectively, as defined by serum 25(OH)D concentrations < 25 and < 50 nmol/l. Of the subjects, 46 % and 17 % had vitamin D inadequacy during winter and summer respectively. Gender differences were also evident with 38 % and 55 % of boys and girls respectively classified as vitamin D inadequate during winter (P < 0·001). Predictors of vitamin D inadequacy during winter were vitamin D intake and gender. In conclusion, there is a high prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy in white-skinned adolescents in Northern Ireland, particularly during wintertime and most evident in girls. There is a clear need for dietary recommendations for vitamin D in this age group and for creative strategies to increase overall vitamin D status in the population.
In Australia, cardiac arrest kills 142 out of every 100,000 people each year; with only 3–4% of out-of-hospital patients with cardiac arrest in Melbourne surviving to hospital discharge. Prompt initiation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), defibrillation, and advanced cardiac care greatly improves the chances of survival from cardiac arrest. A critical step in survival is identifying by the emergency ambulance dispatcher potential of the probability that the person is in cardiac arrest. The Melbourne Metropolitan Ambulance Service (MAS) uses the computerized call-taking system, Medical Priority Dispatch System (MPDS), to triage incoming, emergency, requests for ambulance responses. The MPDS is used in many emergency medical systems around the world, however, there is little published evidence of the system's efficacy.
This study attempts to undertake a sensitivity/specificity analysis to determine the ability of MPDS to detect cardiac arrest.
Emergency ambulance dispatch records of all cases identified as suspected cardiac arrest by MPDS were matched with ambulance, patient-care records and records from the Victorian Ambulance Cardiac Arrest Registry to determine the number of correctly identified cardiac arrests. Additionally, cases that had cardiac arrests, but were not identified correctly at the point of call-taking, were examined. All data were collected retrospectively for a three-month period (01 January through 31 March 2003).
The sensitivity of MPDS in detecting cardiac arrest was 76.7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 73.6%–79.8%) and specificity was 99.2% (95% CI: 99.1–99.3%). These results indicate that cardiac arrests are correctly identified in 76.7% of cases.
Although the system correctly identified 76.7% of cardiac arrest cases, the number of false negatives suggests that there is room for improvement in recognition by MPDS to maximize chances for survival in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. This study provides an objective and comprehensive measurement of the accuracy of MPDS cardiac-arrest detection in Melbourne, as well as providing a baseline for comparison with subsequent changes to the MPDS.
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