Four new species of the genus Desmodora are described from the South Atlantic off the south-eastern coast of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Desmodora porosum sp. nov. is characterized by sexual dimorphism in the shape of the amphids, which are closed loop-shaped in males, and multispiral amphids in females. A case of intersexuality was found in the species, with a functional female gonad. Desmodora profundum sp. nov. is characterized by filiform spicules with a capitulum, buccal cavity with one dorsal and one small ventral tooth, tail cylindrical with a terminal spinneret, and wider rings in the neck region than on the rest of the body. Desmodora veronicae sp. nov. possesses cryptospiral amphids, a buccal cavity with one dorsal tooth and two smaller ventral teeth, 14 tubular pre-cloacal supplements, two ventral cuticular protruberances on the tail, and curved spicules with a capitulum and velum. Desmodora curvatum sp. nov. has the cuticle finely striated, without somatic setae, multispiral amphids, and a gubernaculum without apophysis, curved dorsally with the tip directed toward the end of the body.