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In 2016 the Archaeology Data Service (ADS) was 20 years old. Since its birth the ADS has had to respond to rapid changes in technology, as well as major cultural and organizational changes in the external operating environment, from which a sustainable business model for digital preservation has emerged. This article will take a retrospective look at challenges that have been faced and will review current and future priorities for those seeking to establish digital repositories. Digital preservation and open access to research data are now much higher up the agenda of funding bodies, but there is still lack of agreement on what constitutes a core digital archive from a fieldwork project. The paper will review what the significant properties of an archaeological archive are, and how reuse can be supported, linking data and publications. It will consider the challenge of dealing with the gray literature and of avoiding creating further data silos, featuring new initiatives to provide interoperability between digital repositories. It will review the role of data and metadata standards, and consider how the profession needs to address its responsibilities over the next 20 years.
Viking graves and grave-goods in Ireland is the longawaited
outcome of the Irish Viking Graves Project, which ran from 1999–2005. The
project originated at a conference held in Dublin in 1995, at which the
limited understanding of Viking burials was identified as a significant
shortcoming of the Irish archaeological record. Stephen Harrison was
appointed as Research Assistant, and began the major task of making sense of
the antiquarian records of the Royal Irish Academy. The primary aim of this
work was the creation of the first accurate and comprehensive catalogue of
all Viking graves and grave-goods in Ireland. With this volume, that aim has
been handsomely achieved.
This paper presents the results of a multidisciplinary project that has revealed the location, extent and character of the winter camp of the Viking Great Army at Torksey, Lincolnshire, of ad 872–3. The camp lay within a naturally defended area of higher ground, partially surrounded by marshes and bordered by the River Trent on its western side. It is considerably larger than the Viking camp of 873–4 previously excavated at Repton, Derbyshire, and lacks the earthwork defences identified there. Several thousand individuals overwintered in the camp, including warriors, craftworkers and merchants. An exceptionally large and rich metalwork assemblage was deposited during the Great Army’s overwintering, and metal processing and trading was undertaken. There is no evidence for a pre-existing Anglo-Saxon trading site here; the site appears to have been chosen for its strategic location and its access to resources. In the wake of the overwintering, Torksey developed as an important Anglo-Saxon borough with a major wheel-thrown pottery industry and multiple churches and cemeteries. The Torksey evidence allows for a radical reappraisal of the character of Viking winter camps, and the legacy of the Viking Great Army for Anglo-Saxon England.
Shredders play a major ecological role in temperate streams, but their numerical importance is highly variable within the tropics. Detailed studies on the diets of tropical stream invertebrates are advisable to be able to better describe and understand this variation. Here, we examined the diets of invertebrates collected from the leaf litter of three tropical streams in Colombia, using gut content analysis. Fine and coarse particulate organic matter were the main food resources for invertebrates, which could be divided into four main dietary groups: predators, shredders, specialist collectors and generalist collectors. While the specialist collectors were the most numerically abundant group (54%), shredder biomass accounted for 63% of total invertebrate biomass, suggesting that shredders play a significant ecological role in the study streams. We describe the diets of 12 out of 47 taxa that were previously unknown, which indicates that knowledge about the feeding ecology of tropical stream invertebrates is still incipient.
Many thousands of metal objects are retrieved from arable fields every year, by casual discovery or by treasure-seekers with metal-detectors. What is the status of this material? Here a senior archaeologist and a metal-detectorist get together to demonstrate scientifically the hostile context of the ploughsoil and the accelerating damage it is inflicting on the ancient material it contains. Their work raises some important questions about the ‘archive under the plough’: is it safer to leave the objects there, or to take advantage of a widespread hobby to locate and retrieve them?
In 1996 ‘Internet Archaeology’, the first peer-reviewed e-journal for Archaeology, published its first edition (Heyworth et al. 1997). Later the same year the Archaeology Data Service, the first digital archive for archaeology, was established (Richards 1997). Ten years on, this paper examines the rapid changes which have taken place in electronic publication and looks forward to the next ten years. It examines the pressures on traditional journal publication, and discusses the potential impact on Archaeology of the next Internet revolution, the Semantic Web.
To assess the efficacy of a standard cleaning and sterilization protocol employed during reuse of cardiac electrophysiology catheters on the infectivity of duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV; a surrogate for human hepatitis B virus), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV; a surrogate for human hepatitis B virus), and human Coxsackie type B3 virus (CB3).
Public health virology laboratory.
Studies were performed on the distal, electrode-containing segments of 120 electrophysiology catheters previously used in up to 10 clinical procedures. Catheter segments were immersed for 1 hour in blood infected with high titers of DHBV, BVDV, or CB3. After air drying for 2 hours, subgroups of 8 catheters were subjected to no treatment, washing in general-purpose detergent, washing in enzyme cleaner, sterilization in ethylene oxide, or the full protocol of sequential detergent-enzyme cleaner-ethylene oxide exposure. Presence of residual virus was assessed by nucleic acid detection and infectivity studies.
DHBV nucleic acid was detected on catheters after individual steps and the full protocol, whereas BVDV and CB3 nucleic acids were detected after individual steps but not the full protocol. These findings were associated with the presence of infectious DHBV and CB3, but not BVDV, on catheters after washing in detergent or enzyme cleaner. However, ethylene oxide alone or the full protocol reduced infectivity of all three viruses to undetectable levels.
These experimental studies provide strong evidence that appropriate cleaning and sterilization of reused electrophysiology catheters inactivates blood-borne viruses such as hepatitis B and C and Coxsackie type B3.
Lewis makes a compelling case for a dynamical systems approach to emotion and neurobiology. These models involve both excitatory and inhibitory processes. It appears that a critical role for inhibitory processes is implied but not emphasized in Lewis's model. We suggest that a greater understanding of inhibitory processes both at the psychological and neurobiological levels might further enhance Lewis's model.
The cemetery at Heath Wood, Ingleby, Derbyshire, is the only known Scandinavian cremation cemetery in the British Isles. It comprises fifty-nine barrows, of which about one-third have been excavated on previous occasions, although earlier excavators concluded that some were empty cenotaph mounds. From 1998 to 2000 three barrows were examined. Our investigations have suggested that each of the barrows contained a burial, although not all contain evidence of a pyre. A full report of the 1998–2000 excavations is provided, alongside a summary of the earlier finds. The relationship of Heath Wood to the neighbouring site at Repton is examined, in order to understand its significance for the Scandinavian settlement of the Danelaw. It is concluded that Heath Wood may have been a war cemetery of the Viking Great Army of AD 873–8.
The upper 20—30 m of ice-rich permafrost at three sites overridden by the northwest margin of the Laurentide ice sheet in the Tuktoyaktuk Coastlands, western Arctic Canada, comprise massive ice beneath ice-rich diamicton or sandy silt. The diamicton and silt contain (1) truncated ice blocks up to 15 m long, (2) sand lenses and layers, (3) ice veins dipping at 20—30°, (4) ice lenses adjacent and parallel to sedimentary contacts, and (5) ice wedges. The massive ice is interpreted as intrasedimental or buried basal glacier ice, and the diamicton and silt as glacitectonite that has never thawed. Deformation of frozen ground was mainly ductile in character. Deformation was accompanied by sub-marginal erosion of permafrost, which formed an angular unconformity along the top of the massive ice and supplied ice clasts and sand bodies to the overlying glacitectonite. After deformation and erosion ceased, postglacial segregated ice and ice- wedge ice developed within the deformed permafrost.
Rare bouts of extreme environmental perturbations (catastrophes) have been predicted to have a major influence on the probability of extinction. Yet very little information is available on the frequency and severity of catastrophes. Improving the available information concerning catastrophe parameters would allow for an evaluation of their effect and a start towards understanding their causes. We used the Global Population Dynamics Database to determine the frequency and severity of die-offs in 88 species of vertebrates. We define a catastrophe as any 1-year decrease in population size of 50% or greater. The data yielded three findings. (1) The frequency of severe die-offs in vertebrate populations is strongly related to the generation length of the organism. (2) The probability of a severe die-off for a particular population is approximately 14% per generation. (3) The frequency of die-off severity can be modelled as a modified power function with the frequency of die-offs decreasing with increasing magnitude of effect. The distribution is not consistent with catastrophes stemming from environmental sources different than those responsible for smaller fluctuations, but seems to represent the tail of a continuous distribution of environmental perturbations.