Using X-ray microscopy and spectromicroscopy, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were imaged, prepared without using additional embedding material or staining, but by applying simple, noncryo fixation techniques. The cells were imaged with a compact source transmission X-ray microscope and a scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM). With the STXM, spectromicroscopy was performed at the C K-edge and the Ca LIII,II-edges. VSMCs were chosen because of their high amount of actin stress fibers, so that the actin cytoskeleton should be visible. Other parts of the cell, such as the nucleus and organelles, were also identified from the micrographs. Both in the spectra and the images, the effects of the different preparation procedures were observable. Furthermore, Ca hotspots were detected and their density is determined.