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The oocyte retrieval procedure has undergone a substantial evolution over almost forty years moving from the abdominal to vaginal approach. Ultrasound- guided oocyte retrieval is performed now as a routine procedure worldwide.
Cord prolapse is an obstetric emergency with a high risk of perinatal mortality. Selective transvaginal scanning in women with high-risk factors such as a transverse lie, malpresentation (e.g. footling or lexed breech) or high presenting part of fetus, may be useful. Amniotomy is contraindicated if the cord is palpable below or by the side of the presenting part during vaginal examination. Women with prelabour (prolonged) rupture of membranes (PROM) should be offered a speculum examination irrespective of the period of gestation. A digital vaginal examination indicates the presence of PROM or preterm PROM (PPROM) with cardiotocograph (CTG) abnormalities such as variable decelerations, prolonged decelerations and bradycardia and a suspicion of cord prolapse. Emergency caesarean section (CS) is frequently needed but assisted or operative vaginal delivery may be possible if the cervix is fully dilated. Post-delivery debriefing and counselling of parents and risk-management discussions are needed.