Background: In low- and middle-income country (LMIC) healthcare facilities, gaps in infection prevention and control (IPC) practices increase risk of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and mortality among hospitalized neonates. Method: In this quasi-experimental study, we implemented the Comprehensive Unit-based Safety Program (CUSP) to improve adherence to evidence-based IPC practices in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in 4 tertiary-care facilities in Pune, India. CUSP is a validated strategy to empower staff to improve unit-level patient safety. Baseline safety culture was measured using the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPS). Baseline IPC assessments using the Infection Control Assessment Tool (ICAT) were completed to describe existing IPC practices to identify focus areas, the first of which was hand hygiene (HH). Sites received training in CUSP methodology and formed multidisciplinary CUSP teams, which met monthly and were supported by monthly coaching calls. Staff safety assessments (SSAs) guided selection of multimodal interventions. HH compliance was measured by direct observation using trained external observers. The primary outcome was HH compliance, evaluated monthly during the implementation and maintenance phases. Secondary outcomes included CUSP meeting frequency and HH compliance by healthcare worker (HCW) role. Result: In March 2018, 144 HCWs and administrators participated in CUSP training. Site meetings occurred monthly. During the implementation phase (June 2018–January 2019), HH monitoring commenced, sites formed their teams, completed the SSA, and selected interventions to improve HH based on the WHO’s IPC multimodal improvement strategy: (1) system change; (2) training and education; (3) monitoring and feedback; (4) reminders and communication; and (5) a culture of safety (Fig. 1). During the maintenance phase (February–September 2019), HH was monitored monthly and sites adapted interventions as needed. HH compliance improved from 58% to 70% at participant sites from implementation to maintenance phases (Fig. 2), with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.66 (95% CI, 1.50–1.84; P < .001). HH compliance improved across all HCW roles: (1) physician compliance improved from 55% to 67% (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.42–2.01; P < .001); (2) nurse compliance from 61% to 73% (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.46–1.93; P < .001); and (3) other HCW compliance from 52% to 62% (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.10–1.99; P = .010). Conclusion: CUSP was successfully adapted by 4 diverse tertiary-care NICUs in Pune, India, and it resulted in increased HH compliance at all sites. This multimodal strategy is a promising framework for LMIC healthcare facilities to sustainably address IPC gaps and reduce HAI and mortality in neonates.
Disclosures: Aaron Milstone, Johns Hopkins University, BD (consulting)