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Healthcare-associated norovirus outbreaks increase later but have a more pronounced seasonality than nonhealthcare norovirus outbreaks. Healthcare-associated norovirus outbreaks had higher correlation with Google Trends activity than nonhealthcare outbreaks (R2=0.68 vs 0.39). Google Trends data may have the potential to supplement existing norovirus surveillance due to its real-time availability.
We evaluated the effect of feedback after opportunistic spirometry in general practice on motivation for smoking cessation using stage change in the transtheoretical model. A total of 328 smokers aged over 35 years were given immediate feedback on the presence or absence of lung damage due to smoking, plus brief standard cessation advice. At 3 months, 99 (30.2%) smokers reported making an attempt to quit and 17 (5.2%) smokers reported moving into action stage for cessation. Of 297 (80.5%) successfully followed up, 81 (27.3%) smokers demonstrated forward shift and 35 (11.8%) smokers demonstrated backward shift. Feedback on the presence of lung damage was not significantly associated with reporting a quit attempt (p = .31) or moving into action stage for cessation (p = .30). Odds of forward or backward shift were not independently associated with either feedback on the presence of lung damage or normal lung function. Odds of backward shift with feedback on lung damage depended on participants' assessments of quit benefits, which were correlated with their prior self-assessment of lung damage. Our findings suggest that feedback to smokers after spirometry about the absence of lung damage is not harmful. However, eliciting personal health attitudes is also important so cessation advice can be tailored especially for smokers who believe they already have lung damage from smoking.
Mountain gorillas Gorilla beringei beringei are Critically Endangered, with just two small populations: in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park in south-western Uganda and the nearby Virunga Volcanoes on the borders with Rwanda and Uganda. A survey of the Bwindi population was carried out in 2002 and results were compared with the previous census in 1997. Our estimate of total population size increased over that period by c. 7% to 320 individuals and the structure and distribution of the population were largely unchanged. Signs of human disturbance were more common in 2002 than 1997, and gorillas tended to be found in areas of relative low disturbance. This suggested that disturbance could be a constraint on population growth and distribution but demographic stochasticity may also be responsible for the observed level of population change over a short time period. Other potential limiting factors, including habitat availability and disease, are discussed. While conservation activities in Bwindi have probably contributed to the stability of the population, strengthening of law enforcement and continued vigilance are needed to ensure the population's long-term growth and survival.
Psychiatric patients have a higher suicide risk following hospital discharge.
To identify social, clinical and health-care delivery factors in recently discharged patients.
Retrospective case-control study of 234 patients who died within 1 year of hospital discharge, matched for age, gender, diagnosis and admission period with 431 controls. Odds ratios for identified risk factors were calculated using conditional multiple logistic regression.
Independent increased-risk factors were: not being White; living alone; history of deliberate self-harm (DSH); suicidal ideation precipitating admission; hopelessness; admission under different consultant; onset of relationship difficulties; loss of job; in-patient DSH; unplanned discharge; significant care professional leaving/on leave. Reduced-risk factors were: shared accommodation; delusions at admission; misuse of non-prescribed substances; and continuity of contact.
Continuity of contact may reduce suicide risk. Discontinuity of care from a significant professional is associated with increased risk of suicide.
The mechanical properties of thin films can be measured by a variety of different techniques, with nanoindentation being one of the most recent developments in this growing field. By using a depth-sensing indentation method it is possible to obtain quantitative values for the hardness and modulus, and thus gain better insight into the response of a material to controlled deformation at such small scales. However, previous work  has shown that the effects of pile-up, particularly in soft films deposited on hard substrates, can produce significant overestimation of the hardness and modulus due to an underestimation of the true contact area by common nanoindentation analysis procedures. By measuring the topography of the residual indent using Scanning Force Microscopy (SFM) and combining this information with the indentation data, it is possible to gain a fuller understanding of the indentation method and its effects on the material being tested. In addition, the true contact area can be directly measured from the SFM images and subsequently used to calculate the hardness of the material more accurately. Experimental results are presented for a selection of soft films on hard substrates where SFM analysis of indentations at varying depths gives significant additional information concerning the true response of the system to instrumented indentation at a nanometric scale. Pile-up effects can be precisely monitored as a function of depth and correlated to hardness variations encountered across the coating/substrate interface.
Interatomic potentials of the Embedded Atom and Embedded Defect types were used to study the effect of the angular dependent term in the Embedded Defect potential on the properties of defects in TiAl. The defect properties were computed with interatomic potentials developed with and without angular dependent terms. It was found that the inclusion of the angular dependent terms tends to increase the energies of the APB’s and lower the energies of stacking faults. The effects of the angular term on the relaxation around vacancies and antisites in TiAl was also studied, as well as the core structure of several dislocations in this compound.
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