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To provide nationally representative data on the prevalence of anaemia, vitamin A and Fe deficiencies among pre-school age children (pre-SAC) and non-pregnant women of reproductive age (WRA), and on vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies in WRA, and the influence of inflammation on their interpretation.
A cross-sectional survey to measure anthropometry, malaria parasitaemia and micronutrient status. Specifically, blood samples were analysed for Hb, plasma ferritin, soluble transferrin receptors, C-reactive protein, α1-acid glycoprotein, retinol-binding protein, vitamin B12 and folate.
Côte d'Ivoire in 2007.
Nine hundred and twenty-eight WRA and 879 pre-SAC.
In WRA, prevalence of Plasmodium parasitaemia (5 %) was low, but inflammation (34 %) was higher. Anaemia was a severe public health problem and prevalence differed by residency and eco-region. Inflammation-adjusted Fe deficiency was highest in urban areas (20 %). Nationally, folate deficiency was 86 %, higher in urban areas and varied by eco-region. Prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency was low but higher in the rural areas and the north. Inflammation-adjusted vitamin A deficiency was very low (1 %). In pre-SAC, prevalence of inflammation (67 %) and Plasmodium parasites (25 %) was high; the latter was associated with poverty, rural residency and higher ferritin concentrations. Anaemia was classified as a severe public health problem (72 %), and was higher in rural areas (76 %) and the north (87 %). A quarter of pre-SAC suffered from vitamin A deficiency (inflammation-adjusted) and prevalence of undernutrition was high.
Prevalence of inflammation, Plasmodium parasitaemia and micronutrient deficiencies were high in Côte d'Ivoire, particularly in pre-SAC. Nutritional interventions should be accompanied by strategies to reduce exposure to infections.
Increasing the consumption of Fe-rich foods and thus improving Fe bioavailability without significantly increasing diet cost is the most sustainable intervention for improving Fe intake. We assessed the effect of supplementary food consisting of fermented soyabean (tempeh) and vitamin C-rich fruit consumed during pregnancy on maternal iron deficiency (ID).
Pregnant women were randomly allocated by village into optimized diet and control groups. Supplementary food was given 6 d/week at home. The average weekly food provided comprised 600 g of tempeh, 30 g of meat, 350 g of guava, 300 g of papaya and 100 g of orange. Hb, ferritin and transferrin receptor (TfR) concentrations were measured at 12–20 and at 32–36 weeks of gestation.
Thirty-nine villages in Indonesia.
Pregnant women (12–20 weeks of gestation, n 252).
At baseline, mean Hb, ferritin and TfR concentrations and body Fe concentration were within the normal range and did not differ between groups. At near term, mean Hb, ferritin and body Fe decreased, whereas mean TfR increased significantly in both groups. The mean changes in Fe status were similar in both groups. In Fe-deficient women, consumption of an optimized diet was associated with smaller decreases in Hb (1·02 (95 % CI 0·98, 1·07) g/l; P = 0·058), ferritin (1·42 (95 % CI 1·16, 1·75) μg/l; P = 0·046) and body Fe (2·57 (95 % CI 1·71, 3·43) mg/kg; P = 0·073) concentrations, compared with a state of no intervention. Fe-deficient women at baseline benefited more from supplementary food compared with Fe-replete women.
Daily supplementary food containing tempeh and vitamin C-rich fruits during pregnancy might have positive effects on maternal ID.
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