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To assess the impact of active alerting of positive blood culture data coupled with stewardship intervention on time to appropriate therapy, length of stay, and mortality in patients with gram-negative bacteremia.
Quasi-experimental retrospective cohort study in patients with gram-negative bacteremia at the Detroit Medical Center from 2009 to 2011.
Three hospitals (1 community, 2 academic) with active antimicrobial stewardship programs within the Detroit Medical Center.
All patients with monomicrobial gram-negative bacteremia during the study period.
Active alerting of positive blood culture data coupled with stewardship intervention (2010-2011) compared with patients who received no formalized stewardship intervention (2009).
Active alerting and intervention led to a decreased time to appropriate therapy (8 [interquartile range (IQR), 2-24] vs 14 [IQR, 2-35] hours; P = .014) in patients with gram-negative bacteremia. After controlling for differences between groups, being in the intervention arm was associated with an independent reduction in length of stay (odds ratio [OR], 0.73 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.62-0.86]), correlating to a median attributable decrease in length of stay of 2.2 days. Additionally, multivariate modeling of patients who were not on appropriate antimicrobial therapy at the time of initial culture positivity showed that patients in the intervention group had a significant reduction in both length of stay (OR, 0.76 [95% CI, 0.66-0.86]) and infection-related mortality (OR, 0.24 [95% CI, 0.08-0.76]).
Active alerting coupled with stewardship intervention in patients with gram-negative bacteremia positively impacted time to appropriate therapy, length of stay, and mortality and should be a target of antimicrobial stewardship programs.
Defining risk factors for central venous catheter (CVC)-associated bloodstream infections (BSIs) is critical to establishing prevention measures, especially for factors such as nurse staffing and antimicrobial-impregnated CVCs.
We prospectively monitored CVCs, nurse staffing, and patient-related variables for CVC-associated BSIs among adults admitted to eight ICUs during 2 years.
A total of 240 CVC-associated BSIs (2.8%) were identified among 4,535 patients, representing 8,593 CVCs. Antimicrobial-impregnated CVCs reduced the risk for CVC-associated BSI only among patients whose CVC was used to administer total parenteral nutrition (TPN, 2.6 CVC-associated BSIs per 1,000 CVC-days vs no TPN, 7.5 CVC-associated BSIs per 1,000 CVC-days; P = .006). Among patients not receiving TPN, there was an increase in the risk of CVC-associated BSI in patients cared for by “float” nurses for more than 60% of the duration of the CVC. In multivariable analysis, risk factors for CVC-associated BSIs were the use of TPN in non-antimicrobial-impregnated CVCs (P = .0001), patient cared for by a float nurse for more than 60% of CVC-days (P = .0019), no antibiotics administered to the patient within 48 hours of insertion (P = .0001), and patient unarousable for 70% or more of the duration of the CVC (P = .0001). Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) were associated with a lower risk for CVC-associated BSI (P = .0001).
Antimicrobial-impregnated CVCs reduced the risk of CVC-associated BSI by 66% in patients receiving TPN. Limiting the use of float nurses for ICU patients with CVCs and the use of PICCs may also reduce the risk of CVC-associated BSI.
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