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Thirty-five years ago Robert Lopez, by his own description, “narrowly escaped lynching” at the hands of non-economic historians for proposing that economic depression was a fundamental cause of the cultural outpouring of the Renaissance (Lopez, 1953). Several years later, Lopez took heart that, despite “their occasional retard,” cultural historians were coming round to his view (Lopez and Miskimin, 408-09). Today, the situation is nearly reversed. A growing number of economic historians no longer subscribe to the depression thesis while most non-economic historians do. I will not speculate about whose “retardation” is to blame, but would like to take stock of some issues raised by the depression debate—a debate that transcends economic issues and raises important questions about definitions, periodization, and the cultural implications of economic conditions.
On 10 August 1584 Four Japanese emissaries arrived in Lisbon. Strictly speaking, they were not the first Japanese to arrive in Europe, but they were the first official delegates sent by Japanese feudal lords. And they were the first to return to Japan after a European sojourn.’ Some historians have argued that “no Japanese emissaries, before or since, aroused comparable interest or enthusiasm” among Europeans.
Much has been written about this visit, both in the sixteenth century and closer to our own, but while there is no doubt about the warmth of the welcome, judgments about its meaning and importance have differed sharply. In the late nineteenth century, Guglielmo Berchet reluctantly concluded that despite European enthusiasm and the triumph of the travelers over enormous obstacles during the journey, the embassy was of no consequence because by the time it returned to Japan in 1587, it encountered a hardening of attitudes against Europeans.
An a posteriori error-estimation framework is introduced to quantify and reduce modeling errors resulting from approximating complex mesoscale material behavior with a simpler macroscale model. Such errors may be prevalent when modeling welds and additively manufactured structures, where spatial variations and material textures may be present in the microstructure. We consider a case where a <100> fiber texture develops in the longitudinal scanning direction of a weld. Transversely isotropic elastic properties are obtained through homogenization of a microstructural model with this texture and are considered the reference weld properties within the error-estimation framework. Conversely, isotropic elastic properties are considered approximate weld properties since they contain no representation of texture. Errors introduced by using isotropic material properties to represent a weld are assessed through a quantified error bound in the elastic regime. An adaptive error reduction scheme is used to determine the optimal spatial variation of the isotropic weld properties to reduce the error bound.
After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
• understand the impact of injuries on the health and wellbeing of communities
• identify potential risk factors for falls
• describe the main causes of transportation injuries
• describe the signs, pathophysiology and long-term effects of an acquired brain injury
• outline the effects of interpersonal violence, including self-harm and assault
• consider the impact of chronic pain on an individual that occurs as a result of injury
• understand the role of the nurse in injury prevention.
Injury prevention has been identified as one of Australia's targeted national health priorities (AIHW, 2015a). In New Zealand, injuries are the fifth most important cause of health loss (NZMOH and Accident Compensation Corporation, 2013). There is a significantly increasing trend in chronic illness and disability as a consequence of falls, transportation injuries, sporting and workplace accidents, and interpersonal violence. Many of these injuries result in hospitalisation. After receiving immediate treatment and stabilisation in the acute care setting, a person may require long-term physical rehabilitation or ongoing psychological support and counselling resulting from the injury sustained.
Health promotion and prevention programs are critical to raising awareness and reducing the incidence of injuries that occur. Falls account for 39.4 per cent of injuries, transportation 12 per cent, interpersonal violence, including self-harm, 5.9 per cent, assault 5.2 per cent, and other unintentional injuries 32.1 per cent. These alarming statistics have a significant impact on the cost to both people and health systems (AIHW, 2015b). A multi-layered approach is required to reduce the incidence of injuries. This includes government-led awareness programs such as driver safety campaigns (Proffitt & Beacham, 2012; Transport for NSW, 2015), domestic violence awareness (Parliament of Australia, 2011; Proffitt & Beacham, 2012), workplaces improving safety systems, and individuals taking responsibility for their own safety as well. Falls, transportation injuries, acquired brain injuries, interpersonal violence as a result of self-harm or assault, and the chronic pain that often results from injury will be the focus of this chapter.
Table 8.1 identifies the national competency standards for the registered nurse from the Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia (NMBA) and the Nursing Council of New Zealand (NCNZ) that are addressed in this chapter.
Ascension and Saint Helena Islands are isolated volcanic islands in the South Atlantic Ocean. Records of annelids from the family Amphinomidae, commonly known as fireworms, are rare. Fireworm species recorded in both localities include Eurythoe complanata and Hermodice carunculata, which are broadly distributed throughout the Atlantic Ocean. Here we present the characterization of both species from a recent expedition to Ascension and Saint Helena. Morphologically, specimens from H. carunculata correspond to the West Atlantic population, while E. complanata specimens were clearly identified based on chaetal type. A genetic analysis, including material from Ascension and Saint Helena Islands, will be necessary to elucidate the genetic connectivity across the Atlantic Ocean.
Ultrasonography is a tool that allows us to visualize with increasing detail internal anatomy such as nerves, vessels, and organs. It can be tempting to use this technology to bypass traditional anatomy learning and to simply identify individual structures in a two dimensional image. Excellence in regional anesthesia requires intimate and detailed knowledge of the anatomy of the nerves, their neighboring structures, and, most importantly, the functional anatomy of the skin, muscles, or bones these nerves supply. This chapter provides that detail and the background knowledge to perform safe and successful regional anesthesia in children. The Appendix contains a list of tables where the innervation, origin, insertion, and action of each muscle are described – these tables are referenced in the text to their relevant anatomic section.
The back provides a protective pathway through which the spinal cord passes and spinal nerves exit. The bony contribution is provided by the vertebrae. Ligaments provide supportive connections between the bony elements, and related muscles connect the vertebrae to each other and to adjacent structures, such as the ribs.
There is a basic structure to all vertebrae with differences occurring depending on their position within the vertebral column. The five categories are:
• Cervical – small in size, foramen situated in transverse processes.
• Sacral – five fused vertebrae, with four sacral foramina, and the sacral hiatus.
• Coccygeal – between three and five vertebrae, that may or may not be fused.
A typical vertebra has a vertebral body lying anteriorly to a vertebral arch, the largest vertebral bodies being found in the lumbar area. Each vertebra is separated from its neighbor by a fibro-cartilaginous intervertebral disc.
The vertebral arch is formed posterior to the vertebral body by the two pedicles providing the lateral walls, and the roof formed by the two laminae, joining at the midline. Together these structures surround the vertebral foramen, and the foramina of each vertebra are aligned to form a continuous canal from the magnum foramen in the skull to the lowest point on the sacrum at the sacral hiatus. Within this protective space are the spinal cord and associated membranes, blood vessels, supportive connective tissues, and the emerging spinal nerves.
The trophic structure of Ascension Island's sub-tidal reef assemblages is poorly understood. Unlike other tropical reef systems, sub-tidal habitats have very low abundance of both coral and macrophyte species. Visually dominant is a diverse assemblage of fish species, with particularly high densities of Melichthys niger, a voracious omnivore. In contrast, the nocturnal species assemblage is notably different, visually dominated by benthic invertebrates. To quantify the difference between day and night visible assemblages, we conducted day/night pairs of transect surveys of fish and invertebrates across three depths, and spanning 9 months, assigning all species to one of 10 functional groups. Multivariate analysis of surveys revealed significant turnover in species between day and night surveys and between survey periods, with concomitant changes in species rank-abundance distributions. Juveniles of a number of fish species were determinate in observed differences. Conversely, diversity of functional groups between day/night surveys and between seasons were not different, however there was significant species turnover within functional groups between day and night assemblages. The lack of proportional change in functional groups but a turn-over of species between day and night assemblages suggest that there may be a degree of functional redundancy in Ascension Island's marine trophic profile. Further investigation into the spatio-temporal variation in trophic profile and functional diversity around the island will benefit conservation and fisheries management in this isolated and poorly understood marine system.