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To determine whether (-)-epicatechin (Epi) could decrease visceral adipose tissue and improve the metabolic profile of male offspring rats, after maternal obesity was induced by a high-fat diet (HFD).
Maternal obesity in albino Wistar rats was induced with a HFD, whereas male offspring were fed with chow diet throughout the study. Eight male offspring per group, from different litters, were randomly assigned to the experimental or to the control groups. In the experimental group, Epi was administered at a dose of 1 mg/kg of body weight to the male offspring twice daily for two weeks, beginning at postnatal day (PND).
Weight of visceral adipose tissue, adipocyte size, and several metabolic parameters.
Epi administration in the male offspring induced a significant decrease in the amount of visceral fat (11.61 g less, P < 0.05) and in the size of adipose cells (28% smaller, P < 0.01). Besides, Epi was able to decrease insulin, leptin, and Homeostasis Model Assessment -Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) (P < 0.05), as well as triglycerides, when the experimental group was compared to the untreated male offspring of obese rats (P < 0.01).
Epi administration can reverse the negative effects that maternal obesity has on the male offspring. This could be because Epi reduces the amount of visceral fat and improves metabolic profile.
The timing, structure, and landscape change during the Patagonian Ice Sheet deglaciation remains unresolved. In this article, we provide a geomorphic, stratigraphic, and geochronological deglacial record of Río Cisnes Glacier at 44°S and also from the nearby Río Ñirehuao and Río El Toqui valleys (45°S) in Chilean Patagonia. Our 14C, 10Be, and optically stimulated luminescence data indicate that after the last glacial maximum, Río Cisnes Glacier experienced ~100 km deglaciation between >19.0 and 12.3 ka, accompanied by the formation of large glacial paleolakes. Deglaciation was interrupted by several ice readvances, and by 16.9±0.3 ka, Río Cisnes Glacier extended only ~40% of its full glacial extent. The deglaciation of Río Cisnes Glacier and other sensitive Patagonian glaciers occurred at least 1 ka earlier than the ca. 17.8 ka normally assumed for the local termination, coincident with West Antarctic isotope records. This early deglaciation can be linked to an orbital forcing–driven decline of Southern Ocean sea ice associated with a distinct atmospheric warming that is apparent for West Antarctica through Patagonia.
Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are utilized to resolve low coupling coefficient issue by dispersing MWCNTs in poly(vinylidene fluoride) matrix to create stress reinforcing network, dispersant, and electron conducting functions for barium titanate (BT) nanoparticles. Various BT and MWCNT percentages of nanocomposite film are fabricated by FDM three-dimensional (3D) printing which can simplify the fabrication process as well as lower cost and design flexibility. Increasing MWCNTs and BT particles gradually increase piezoelectric coefficient (d31) by 0.13 pC/N with 0.4 wt%-MWCNTs/18 wt%-BT. These results provide not only a technique to print piezoelectric nanocomposites but also unique materials combination for sensor application.
Here we present a new site in the Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain): Galería de las Estatuas (GE), which provides new information about Mousterian occupations in the Iberian Plateau. The GE was an ancient entrance to the cave system, which is currently closed and sealed by a stalagmitic crust, below which a detritic sedimentary sequence of more than 2 m is found. This has been divided into five litostratigraphic units with a rich assemblage of faunal and lithic remains of clear Mousterian affinity. Radiocarbon dates provide minimum ages and suggest occupations older than 45 14C ka BP. The palynological analysis detected a landscape change to increased tree coverage, which suggests that the sequence recorded a warming episode. The macromammal assemblage is composed of both ungulates (mainly red deer and equids) and carnivores. Taphonomic analysis reveals both anthropic, and to a lesser extent, carnivore activities. The GE was occupied by Neanderthals and also sporadically by carnivores. This new site broadens the information available regarding different human occupations at the Sierra de Atapuerca, which emphasizes the importance of this site-complex for understanding human evolution in Western Europe.
The first satellite-derived inventory of glaciers and rock glaciers in Chile, created from Landsat TM/ETM+ images spanning between 2000 and 2003 using a semi-automated procedure, is presented in a single standardized format. Large glacierized areas in the Altiplano, Palena Province and the periphery of the Patagonian icefields are inventoried. The Chilean glacierized area is 23 708 ± 1185 km2, including ~3200 km2 of both debris-covered glaciers and rock glaciers. Glacier distribution varies as a result of climatic gradients with latitude and elevation, with 0.8% occurring in the Desert Andes (17°30′–32° S); 3.6% in the Central Andes (32–36° S), 6.2% in the Lakes District and Palena Province (36–46° S), and 89.3% in Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego (46–56° S). Glacier outlines, across all glacierized regions and size classes, updated to 2015 using Landsat 8 images for 98 complexes indicate a decline in areal extent affecting mostly clean-ice glaciers (−92.3 ± 4.6 km2), whereas debris-covered glaciers and rock glaciers in the Desert and Central Andes appear nearly unchanged in their extent. Glacier attributes estimated from this new inventory provide valuable insights into spatial patterns of glacier shrinkage for assessing future glacier changes in response to climate change.
The present study aimed to examine the association between different breakfast consumption patterns and vitamin intakes and blood vitamin concentrations in European adolescents.
Breakfast consumption was assessed by a questionnaire. Vitamin intake was calculated from two 24 h recalls. Blood vitamin and total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations were analysed from fasting blood samples.
The European Commission-funded HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study.
Participants were 1058 (52·8 % females) European adolescents (aged 12·5–17·5 years) from ten cities.
Lower vitamin D and vitamin C concentrations were observed in male and female breakfast skippers than in consumers (P<0·05). Female breakfast consumers presented higher holo-transcobalamin and lower tHcy (P<0·05), while males had higher cobalamin concentrations, compared with skippers (P<0·05). Higher vitamin D and total folate intakes were observed in adolescents who consumed breakfast compared with skippers (P<0·05). Likewise, female consumers had higher intakes of vitamin B6 and vitamin E than occasional consumers (P<0·05).
Regular breakfast consumption is associated with higher blood vitamin D and cobalamin concentrations in males and with higher vitamin D and holo-transcobalamin and lower tHcy concentrations in females. Moreover, breakfast consumption is associated with high intakes of vitamin D and total folate in both sexes, and with high intakes of vitamin B6 and vitamin E in females.
Chitosan is biocompatible polymer has a great commercial interest because it can be processed in a sort of devices varying in shape and size, such as membranes, gels and nanoparticles. Mostly, the cell’s attachment and proliferation are very positive on nanostructurated materials with a three-dimensional formation. An irreversible network can be produced by covalently binding the polymer to the cross-linker molecules. Chitosan nanoparticles were prepared using glutaraldehyde as cross-linker. This crosss-liker mostly reacts with chitosan amino groups. In order to control and understand the physical characteristics of chitosan nanoparticle, in this work is showed the molecular behavior of chitosan/glutaraldehyde from the viewpoint of molecular interactions base in a series of molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulation. The results indicated the conformations of both molecules, which had a significant influence on the molecular association. The chitosan chains were uniformly distributed presenting a high flexibility and preference for the relaxed two-fold helix. This was due to the various associations such as intramolecular chitosan interactions –O-H···O-C-. While the chitosan-glutaraldehyde associations were due to the positive net charge density of hydrogens in the chitosan plus - H2N···C=O associations. In solid state chitosan nano and microparticles were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). According to the micrographs results, the nanoparticles presented a monomorphism with piles of particles arranged in linear order which was consistent with the conformations determined by simulation.
Several experimental efforts related to the concrete improvement are focused to increase its flexural strength to complement the high compressive strength, which is usually developed by materials of this nature. The flexural strength or modulus of rupture of the concrete is important in civil engineering applications such as infrastructure projects, pavements and buildings. This work proposes an alternative to optimize concrete flexural strength through the functionalization of the 9 Angstrom (Å) Tobermorite using Carbon Nanotubes (CNT). A complete ab-initio, 3D Atomistic Model of the 9Å Tobermorite is presented as the basis of the silicate cementitious hydrated products. In order to validate the model, some mechanical properties were computed using a Density Functional Theory (DFT) based program. Afterwards, a functionalization based on CNTs with different diameters was carried out to improve the flexural strength of the concrete.
Prominent moraines deposited by the Laurentide Ice Sheet in northern New England document readvances, or stillstands, of the ice margin during overall deglaciation. However, until now, the paucity of direct chronologies over much of the region has precluded meaningful assessment of the mechanisms that drove these events, or of the complex relationships between ice-sheet dynamics and climate. As a step towards addressing this problem, we present a cosmogenic 10Be surface-exposure chronology from the Androscoggin moraine complex, located in the White Mountains of western Maine and northern New Hampshire, as well as four recalculated ages from the nearby Littleton–Bethlehem moraine. Seven internally consistent 10Be ages from the Androscoggin terminal moraines indicate that advance culminated ~ 13.2 ± 0.8 ka, in close agreement with the mean age of the neighboring Littleton–Bethlehem complex. Together, these two datasets indicate stabilization or advance of the ice-sheet margin in northern New England, at ~ 14–13 ka, during the Allerød/Greenland Interstadial I.