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Pulses such as peas, beans or lentils are one of the most complete foods at the nutritional level; however, they are one of the most often neglected foods in the diets of university students. Entrance to university translates into a major lifestyle change for many young people, and the habits acquired or cemented at this time will remain into adulthood. The objective of this study is to analyse the association between personal/sociodemographic factors, dietary intake of other food groups and the consumption of pulses in first-year university students. This cross-sectional study is part of the UniHcos project, a multicentre study of multipurpose prospective cohorts in eleven Spanish universities. Data from 9862 university students were collected through an online self-questionnaire completed by all students who met the selection criteria and agreed to participate in the project during the 2011–2018 academic years. Of students, 75·8 % presented an inadequate (≤2 times/week) consumption of pulses. Living outside the family home in either a student residence (OR 0·76; 95 % CI 0·69, 0·84) or rental (OR 0·81; 95 % CI 0·70, 0·95) decreased the compliance with recommendations on the consumption of pulses. Low consumption of pulses is seemingly not restricted to a specific profile or dietary pattern among university students, and no specific focus group for intervention can be identified. Policies promoting the consumption of pulses among the university population as a whole are necessary to increase compliance rates with the dietary recommendations.
The Olrog’s Gull Larus atlanticus is an endemic and threatened species of the south-western Atlantic. Little is known about its movements during the non-breeding period. The objective of this study was to analyse the migration of the species by tracking adults from Bahía San Blas (Buenos Aires province, Argentina) with geolocators and using information of sightings of ringed gulls. Differences between males and females were evaluated using tracking data and ringed data were used to determine age differences. A single core area (kernel 50%) from 21 tracked birds was identified. This area included the study colony and also other breeding colonies located up to 300 km to the north. The range area (kernel 95%) included coastal areas up to 1,000 km from the colony. All sightings of ringed gulls (n = 41) occurred north of the breeding colony, however 12 adult individuals were sighted during the winter in its breeding grounds. Our results suggest the occurrence of partial migration behavior in Olrog’s Gull. The migration pattern reported here implies than during the non-breeding season, breeding and wintering areas away from the nesting grounds should be considered as one system in the design of conservation strategies for this regionally threatened gull.
Tactile sense provides us with the necessary information and feedback to determined tasks. Within this context, haptic devices represent a growing and highly interesting field to be included in biomedical devices, teleoperation applications, and video games. These devices are usually developed with rigid materials, motors, and mechanisms to provide tactile feedback to individuals that corresponds to a defined task, producing pressure, tangential force or vibrations as stimuli on the skin. Here, we present a prototype of a soft pneumatic haptic device based on an inflatable hyperelastic membrane, that can provide two stimuli over skin such as pression and traction with only one input of energy. The device was fabricated using different types of silicone materials and membrane shapes. This exhibits experimentally a maximum vertical deformation of 13 mm and a tangential displacement of 10 mm at 7 kPa. These two mechanically programmed movements open the possibility of using this technology in mechano-tactile feedback for wearable devices, with low-cost hardware, soft interaction between devices and skin, and lightweight.
The Florida Department of Health in Miami-Dade County (DOH-Miami-Dade) investigated 106 reported carbon monoxide (CO) exposures over a 9-day timeframe after Hurricane Irma. This report evaluates risk factors for CO poisoning and the importance of heightened surveillance following natural disasters.
Data on CO poisoning cases from September 9 to 18, 2017 were extracted from Merlin, the Florida Department of Health Surveillance System. Medical records were obtained and follow-up interviews were conducted to collect data on the confirmed CO poisoning cases. Data were analyzed using SAS v9.4.
Ninety-one of the 106 people exposed to CO met the case definition for CO poisoning: 64 confirmed, 7 probable, and 20 suspect cases. Eighty-eight percent of the affected individuals were evaluated in emergency departments and 11.7% received hyperbaric oxygen treatment. The most frequently reported symptoms included headache (53.3%), dizziness (50.7%), and nausea (46.7%). Three patients expired due to their exposure to CO.
Post Hurricane Irma, the DOH-Miami-Dade investigated numerous cases for CO exposure. By understanding who is most likely to be impacted by CO and the impact of generators’ location on people’s health, education efforts can be tailored to the population most at risk and further CO exposures and related mortalities following natural disasters can be reduced. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:94–96)
The Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (ATQ) is a widely used, 30-item, 5-point Likert-type scale that measures the frequency of negative automatic thoughts as experienced by individuals suffering from depression. However, there is some controversy about the factor structure of the ATQ, and its application can be too time-consuming for survey research. Accordingly, an abbreviated, 8-item version of the ATQ has been proposed. The aim of this study was to analyze the validity evidence of the Spanish version of the ATQ-8 in Colombia. The ATQ-8 was administered to a total of 1587 participants, including a sample of undergraduates, one of general population, and a clinical sample. The internal consistency across the different samples was good (α = .89). The one-factor model found in the original scale showed a good fit to the data (RMSEA = .083, 90% CI [.074, .092]; CFI = .96; NNFI = .95). The clinical sample’s mean score on the ATQ-8 was significantly higher than the scores of the nonclinical samples. The ATQ-8 was sensitive to the effects of a 1-session acceptance and commitment therapy focused on disrupting negative repetitive thinking. ATQ-8 scores were significantly related to dysfunctional schemas, emotional symptoms, mindfulness, experiential avoidance, satisfaction with life, and dysfunctional attitudes. In conclusion, the Spanish version of the ATQ-8 showed good psychometric properties in Colombia.
A microstructural characterization study was performed on high-pressure die cast specimens extracted from escalator steps manufactured from an Al-12 wt.% Si alloy designed for structural applications. Black and white, color light optical imaging and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used to conduct the microstructural analysis. Most regions in the samples studied contained globular-rosette primary α-Al grains surrounded by an Al-Si eutectic aggregate, while primary dendritic α-Al grains were present in the surface layer. This dendritic microstructure was observed in the regions where the melt did not impinge directly on the die surface during cavity filling. Consequently, microstructures in the surface layer were nonuniform. Utilizing physical metallurgy principles, these results were analyzed in terms of the applied pressure and filling velocity during high-pressure die casting. The effects of these parameters on solidification at different locations of the casting are discussed.
Discerning dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) from Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common and challenging differential diagnoses at the memory clinic. Although the neuropsychiatric manifestations have been widely reported as one of the main key points in the differential diagnosis between these two diseases, to date no neuropsychiatric questionnaire has been specifically devised for this purpose.
We administered the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) and the Columbia University Scale for Psychopathology in Alzheimer's Disease (CUSPAD) to a memory clinic sample of 80 patients with probable DLB and 85 age- and severity-matched patients with probable AD. Diagnosis of probable DLB was supported with a positive dopamine transporter SPECT scan. We examined the usefulness of these two neuropsychiatric tools designed for AD in the differential diagnosis between DLB and AD. We also investigated the correlations between psychotic symptoms and measures of cognitive and functional decline.
Auditory hallucinations were very specific of DLB and were usually preceded by visual hallucinations. Misinterpretation of real visual stimuli (illusions) was more frequent in DLB. Delusions were both quantitatively and qualitatively different between DLB and AD: delusional misidentifications were significantly more characteristic of DLB, while paranoid delusions did not show specificity for DLB.
Neuropsychiatric tools are useful to discriminate DLB from AD. Hallucinations and delusions are not only more frequent in DLB than in AD but also have distinct qualitative characteristics and patterns of progression that can help clinicians to make a more accurate differential diagnosis.
We study the theoretical properties of the regular spacings found in the oscillation spectra of δ Scuti stars. A linear relation between the large separation and the mean density is predicted to be found in the low-frequency domain (i.e. radial orders spanning from 1 to 8, approximately) of the main-sequence δ Scuti stars' oscillation spectrum. This implies an independent direct measure of the average density of δ Scuti stars, analogous to that of the Sun, and places tight constraints on the mode identification and hence on the stellar internal structure and dynamics, and allows a determination the radii of planets orbiting around δ Scuti stars with unprecedented precision. This opens the way for studying the evolution of regular patterns in pulsating stars, and its relation to stellar structure and evolution.
The influence on alloy 413.0 of the refinement and modification of its microstructure was analyzed by means of several microscopy techniques, as well as the effect of the application of high pressure during solidification. For each treatment and solidification pressure condition employed, the most suitable microscopy techniques for identifying and characterizing the phases present were investigated. Color metallography and electron microscopy techniques were applied to the qualitative microstructural analysis. Volume fraction and grain size of the primary α-Al were characterized by quantitative metallographic techniques. The results show that the effect caused by applying high pressure during solidification of the alloy is more pronounced than that caused by modification and refinement of the microstructure when it solidifies at atmospheric pressure. Furthermore, it has been shown that, for Al–Si alloy characterization, when aiming to characterize the primary α-Al phase, optical color metallography observed under crossed polarized light plus a sensitive tint filter is the most suitable technique. When the goal is to characterize the eutectic Si, the use of optical color metallography or electron microscopy is equally valid. The characterization of iron-rich intermetallic compounds should preferably be performed by means of backscattered electron imaging.
The present study investigates the effect of the solidification strategy for AA 6063 alloy on the surface appearance of anodized extrusions. The microstructure of the samples was analyzed using both light optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Results show that if heavy segregation occurs from rapid solidification, coarse Mg2Si particles form, thus reducing the potential for precipitation strengthening by the finer β-Mg2Si developed in the solid state. Differentially-strained regions formed during hot extrusion induce differences in particle size for magnesium silicide (Mg2Si) precipitates. Anodizing generates surface roughness due to Mg2Si particle dissolution and AlFeSi decohesion, which is related to both particle size and deformation. During anodizing, an oxide layer forms on the surface of the extruded products, which can lead to streak formation, usually a subject of rejection due to unacceptable heterogeneous reflectivity.
The endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonyl glycerol (2-AG) are modulators of glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), two transmitters involved in cocaine addiction. However, little is known on the effects of cocaine on the enzymes that produce and degrade endocannabinoids. The present work addresses the effects of cocaine self-administration on the immunohistochemical expression of endocannabinoid signalling (ECS)-related proteins in the hippocampus. The study has been performed on two different strains of rats, Lewis (Lew) and Fischer 344 (F344), which are characterized for displaying a differential sensitivity to cocaine, thus making them suitable in the study of vulnerability to drug addiction. Both strains showed differences in the expression of ECS-related proteins in the hippocampus, i.e. Lew rats exhibited lower CB1 expression but higher CB2 expression than F344 rats. After setting similar cocaine self-administration, both strains showed clear differences in the expression of ECS-related proteins, which were differentially restricted to either the 2-AG or anandamide signalling pathways in a self-administration training/drug-dependent manner. The decreases observed in CB1 expression and N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D:fatty acid amino hydrolase ratio after saline self-administration were enhanced only in cocaine self-administered Lew rats. CB2 expression increase and diacylglycerol lipase α:monoacylglycerol lipase ratio decrease detected after saline self-administration were blocked only in cocaine self-administered F344 rats. These findings indicate that cocaine may regulate hippocampal GABA/glutamate synapses by directly modulating endocannabinoid production/degradation enzymes and that these actions are strain-dependent. This differential response suggests that the endogenous cannabinoid system might contribute to genotype/strain differences on the sensitivity to self-administration training and cocaine addiction.
The present study was designed to investigate the effect of pharmacological inhibition of endocannabinoid degradation on behavioural actions of the dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist quinpirole in male C57Bl/6J mice. In addition, we studied the effects of endocannabinoid degradation inhibition on both cocaine-induced psychomotor activation and behavioural sensitization. We analysed the effects of inhibition of the two main endocannabinoid degradation enzymes: fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), using inhibitor URB597 (1 mg/kg); monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), using inhibitor URB602 (10 mg/kg). Administration of quinpirole (1 mg/kg) caused a temporal biphasic response characterized by a first phase of immobility (0–50 min), followed by enhanced locomotion (next 70 min) that was associated with the introduction of stereotyped behaviours (stereotyped jumping and rearing). Pretreatment with both endocannabinoid degradation inhibitors did not affect the hypoactivity actions of quinpirole. However, this pretreatment resulted in a marked decrease in quinpirole-induced locomotion and stereotyped behaviours. Administration of FAAH or MAGL inhibitors did not attenuate the acute effects of cocaine. Furthermore, these inhibitors did not impair the acquisition of cocaine-induced behavioural sensitization or the expression of cocaine-induced conditioned locomotion. Only MAGL inhibition attenuated the expression of an already acquired cocaine-induced behavioural sensitization. These results suggest that pharmacological inhibition of endocannabinoid degradation might exert a negative feedback on D2/D3 receptor-mediated hyperactivity. This finding might be relevant for therapeutic approaches for either psychomotor disorders (dyskinesia, corea) or disorganized behaviours associated with dopamine-mediated hyperactivity.
We investigate non-radial pulsations of the CoRoT IR1 Be Star 102761769, with a projected stellar rotation estimated to be 120±15 km/s. If the star is a typical galactic Be star it rotates near the critical velocity. We propose an alternative scenario, where the star could be seen nearly equator-on rotating at a relatively moderate velocity say, ≈ 120 km/s and therefore the nonradial oscillations could be modeled. In order to identify the pulsation modes of the observed frequencies, we computed a set of models representative of CoRoT 102761769 by means of the adiabatic pulsation package FILOU. Results indicate that the two frequencies are compatible with a high-g mode as predicted by pulsation models of Be stars.
In this project, we study the effects of stellar rotation on the pulsation predictions for stars in the Main Sequence following the series δ Scu, γ Dor, SPB, Be and β Cep. The objects' rotation in this series span from a few km/s to a few hundreds of km/s. We will compare theoretical predictions yielded by the codes CESAM/FILOU with published data from the MOST and CoRoT satellites. A better diagnostic of the rotation effects on stellar pulsations will help to improve the oscillatory models.
Dupont's lark Chersophilus duponti was categorized globally as Near Threatened on the IUCN Red List in 2005, largely because of reported declines in Spain and an estimated population of 2,000–3,000 breeding pairs in Morocco. However, the range and size of the species' North African populations were still unknown, despite being critical for assessment of the species' global conservation status. Here we report on the breeding distribution of Dupont's lark in Morocco, probably the largest population in its North African range, as well as on its preferred habitat, population density and size. Fieldwork and analysis of satellite images were combined to locate suitable habitat for the species, assess its presence (eliciting territorial calls by broadcasting the males’ songs and calls), and estimate densities using 83 km of linear censuses. Total number of birds located was 461 (305 from song playback and 156 from transects) across an extent of occurrence of c. 11,000 km2, comprising 2,067 km2 of suitable habitat and an effective area of occupancy of 1,645 km2. Mean density was 0.60 ± SD 0.52 birds per 10 ha and was highest in dense stands of Stipa tennacissima. Our estimate of Dupont's lark breeding population in Morocco is c. 15,400 singing males (lower and upper limits 11,220–20,167, respectively). Evidence of habitat loss and degradation was found in one of the main areas of the species' distribution in Morocco, although this does not seem to be a general pattern in the lark's Moroccan range. Further studies are required of the dynamics of suitable habitat for the species to prevent long-term consequences for the conservation of Dupont's lark and other bird species of the steppe.
Mammalian herbivores can play a role in the endozoochorous dispersal of Prosopis seeds in the arid zones of Argentina, and the introduction of exotic mammals can change relevant parameters of the plant's reproductive ecology. Our specific goals were to quantify the seeds of Prosopis flexuosa, P. chilensis and P. torquata contained in the faeces of native [mara (Dolichotis patagonum), guanaco (Lama guanicoe)] and exotic [donkey (Equus asinus) and hare (Lepus europaeus)] mammals, and to determine the mortality, germination percentage and germination speed of seeds borne in faeces, compared with those collected from trees. In 2006, seeds were collected directly from trees or removed from mammal faeces. Seeds were counted and classified as apparently healthy or damaged. P. torquata and P. flexuosa seeds were found in the dung of guanaco, hare and mara, whereas only P. flexuosa seeds appeared in donkey faeces. P. chilensis seeds were only found in guanaco faeces. There was a notable relative abundance of seeds contained in small herbivore faeces in comparison to the large herbivores. The passage through the digestive tract of animals modified seed germination capacity and speed, with great variability between animal species. Guanacos had greater effects than donkeys on mortality, germination percentage and germination speed. Differences between the effects of both smaller-sized herbivores on seeds were much smaller.
Reputedly, painter Charles Sheeler and photographer Paul Strand's
Manhatta is the first significant title in the history of American avant-garde
cinema. It is a seven-minute portrait of New York City and focuses on
those features which make the city a modern megalopolis – the traffic, the
crowds, the high-rise buildings, the engineering wonders, and the speed
and dynamism of street life. The film strives to capture rhythmic and
graphic patterns in the movements and shapes of cranes, trains,
automobiles, boats, steam shovels, suspension bridges, and skyscrapers.
Due to the dominance of technology, the entire urban landscape appears
in the film as a machine-like aggregate of static and moving parts
independent from human intention.
The frequency of hepatitis C (HCV), hepatitis B (HBV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) I/II was determined in the emergency room of a teaching hospital. Of 909 patients, 19% had at least one infection; 7.8% had HCV, 6.9% HBV, 3.3% HIV, and 2.8% HTLV I/II. The probability that a healthcare worker would have an accident with an infected patient and seroconvert was 4.99 to 24.9 per 100,000 venipunctures for HBV, 5.6 to 8.4 for HCV, and 0.12-0.16 for HIV in our emergency room.
The comparative performance of the WASP and MS-Micro/3 airflow models and of the DAMS scoring system in calculating the wind climate in complex forested terrain has been examined. An analysis was carried out of predicted and observed wind speeds collected over 18 months at six monitoring sites in mountainous country in the Cowal Peninsula, western Scotland. Both airflow models and the DAMS system produced variable results: the airflow models were most accurate on exposed hill tops whereas DAMS tended to be more accurate in valleys and lower slopes. Taken as a whole this study showed that the DAMS scoring system performed as well as the other airflow models considered.
Giant lymph node hyperplasia (Castleman's disease) is usually reported as a solitary mediastinal tumour, although involvement of other anatomical sites and a multicentric form have been reported. We describe a rare case of Castleman's disease due to its localisation (the left infratemporal fossa) and histology (plasma-cell variant). A brief review of the main clinico-histological characteristics of Castleman's disease is also presented.