Three sulfur-containing styrene monomers with different leaving groups, 4-vinylphenyl ethanethioate, 1,2-bis(4-vinylphenyl)disulfane, and butyl(4-vinylphenyl)sulfane, were synthesized through nucleophilic substitution/addition reactions and purified through column chromatography. In aqueous solution, these monomers could bind to the surface of gold nanoparticles and form self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). SAMs were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy and showed SERS activity with enhancement factors of more than 105. In addition, SAMs were also formed on the surface of gold/silver nano-island films. The bulk Raman and SERS spectra of monomers on different gold nanostructured materials were very similar. The enhancement factors and the formation of SAMs depended on monomer structure and fabrication method. Also depending on the deposition conditions, laser induced polymerization of the mercaptostyrene monomers SAMs was observed.