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Two preferred textures were observed in the Alhama de Murcia Fault rocks: (a) foliated bands (>100 µm thick) rich in well-crystallized dioctahedral micas, quartz, hematite and dolomite; and (b) ultrafine-grained bands (<100 µm thick) made of patches composed of small mica crystals (<15 µm) and dispersed Fe-oxides. In both textures, kaolinite forms intergrowths or patches of randomly oriented crystals filling gaps or opening layers of presumably inherited detrital mica crystals, which is interpreted as an epitaxial growth from fluids. The Na/K ratio of mica crystals in the thin ultrafine-grained bands shows a wider range than the micas from the foliated bands including muscovitic, intermediate Na/K and paragonitic compositions. The absence of the 0.98 nm intermediate peak in the diffractograms indicates that the small micas are submicroscopically paragonite and phengite intergrowths. The d001 values of the K-dioctahedral micas in the <2 µm and whole fractions are clearly different from each other. The d001 values of micas of the <2 µm fraction are larger, indicating a higher K and lower Na content in the small micas. Their composition corresponds to lower temperatures, suggesting their growth during a genetic episode in the fault. The textural relationships indicate a late growth of kaolinite, probably due to the fluid–rock interaction along fault planes and fractures. The neoformed clay minerals might alter the stability of the fault plane. The absence of expandable clay minerals and the relatively high frictional strength of kaolinite under wet conditions might explain the observed velocity-neutral behaviour of this gouge and earthquake propagation towards the surface.
Healthy lifestyle habits are the cornerstone in the management of familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH). Nevertheless, dietary studies on FH-affected populations are scarce. The present study analyses dietary habits, adherence to a Mediterranean diet pattern and physical activity in an adult population with FH and compares them with their non-affected relatives.
Data came from SAFEHEART, a nationwide study in Spain.
Individuals (n 3714) aged ≥18 years with a genetic diagnosis of FH (n2736) and their non-affected relatives (n 978). Food consumption was evaluated using a validated FFQ.
Total energy intake was lower in FH patients v. non-affected relatives (P<0·005). Percentage of energy from fats was also lower in the FH population (35 % in men, 36 % in women) v. those non-affected (38 % in both sexes, P<0·005), due to the lower consumption of saturated fats (12·1 % in FH patients, 13·2 % in non-affected, P<0·005). Consumption of sugars was lower in FH patients v. non-affected relatives (P<0·05). Consumption of vegetables, fish and skimmed milk was higher in the FH population (P<0·005). Patients with FH showed greater adherence to a Mediterranean diet pattern v. non-affected relatives (P<0·005). Active smoking was lower and moderate physical activity was higher in people with FH, especially women (P<0·005).
Adult patients with FH report healthier lifestyles than their non-affected family members. They eat a healthier diet, perform more physical activity and smoke less. However, this patient group’s consumption of saturated fats and sugars still exceeds guidelines.
Chagas disease is a complex tropical pathology caused by the kinetoplastid Trypanosoma cruzi. This parasite displays massive genetic diversity and has been classified by international consensus in at least six Discrete Typing Units (DTUs) that are broadly distributed in the American continent. The main clinical manifestation of the disease is the chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCC) that is lethal in the infected individuals. However, one intriguing feature is that only 30–40% of the infected individuals will develop CCC. Some authors have suggested that the immune response, host genetic factors, virulence factors and even the massive genetic heterogeneity of T. cruzi are responsible of this clinical pattern. To date, no conclusive data support the reason why a few percentages of the infected individuals will develop CCC. Therefore, we decided to conduct a systematic review analysing the host genetic factors, immune response, cytokine production, virulence factors and the plausible association of the parasite DTUs and CCC. The epidemiological and clinical implications are herein discussed.
A computational model for the evaluation of the thermomechanical effects that give rise to the catastrophic optical damage of laser diodes has been devised. The model traces the progressive deterioration of the device running in continuous wave conditions. The local heating of the active layer locally leads to the onset of the plastic regime. As a result, dislocations and threads of dislocations grow across the active layers and lead to rapidly growing temperatures in the quantum well. The poor power dissipation under these conditions has been identified as the key factor driving the final degradation of the laser.
The present study compares the patterns of growth of beginning reading skills (i.e., phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary and comprehension) of Spanish speaking monolingual students who received a Tier 2 reading intervention with students who did not receive the intervention. All the students in grades K-2 were screened at the beginning of the year to confirm their risk status. A quasi-experimental longitudinal design was used: the treatment group received a supplemental program in small groups of 3 to 5 students, for 30 minutes daily from November to June. The control group did not receive it. All students were assessed three times during the academic year. A hierarchical linear growth modeling was conducted and differences on growth rate were found in vocabulary in kindergarten (p < .001; variance explained = 77.0%), phonemic awareness in kindergarten (p < .001; variance explained = 43.7%) and first grade (p < .01; variance explained = 15.2%), and finally we also find significant growth differences for second grade in oral reading fluency (p < .05; variance explained = 15.1%) and retell task (p < .05; variance explained = 14.5%). Children at risk for reading disabilities in Spanish can improve their skills when they receive explicit instruction in the context of Response to Intervention (RtI). Findings are discussed for each skill in the context of implementing a Tier 2 small group intervention within an RtI approach. Implications for practice in the Spanish educational context are also discussed for children who are struggling with reading.
Illegal killing/taking of birds is a growing concern across the Mediterranean. However, there are few quantitative data on the species and countries involved. We assessed numbers of individual birds of each species killed/taken illegally in each Mediterranean country per year, using a diverse range of data sources and incorporating expert knowledge. We estimated that 11–36 million individuals per year may be killed/taken illegally in the region, many of them on migration. In each of Cyprus, Egypt, Italy, Lebanon and Syria, more than two million birds may be killed/taken on average each year. For species such as Blackcap Sylvia atricapilla, Common Quail Coturnix coturnix, Eurasian Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs, House Sparrow Passer domesticus and Song Thrush Turdus philomelos, more than one million individuals of each species are estimated to be killed/taken illegally on average every year. Several species of global conservation concern are also reported to be killed/taken illegally in substantial numbers: Eurasian Curlew Numenius arquata, Ferruginous Duck Aythya nyroca and Rock Partridge Alectoris graeca. Birds in the Mediterranean are illegally killed/taken primarily for food, sport and for use as cage-birds or decoys. At the 20 worst locations with the highest reported numbers, 7.9 million individuals may be illegally killed/taken per year, representing 34% of the mean estimated annual regional total number of birds illegally killed/taken for all species combined. Our study highlighted the paucity of data on illegal killing/taking of birds. Monitoring schemes which use systematic sampling protocols are needed to generate increasingly robust data on trends in illegal killing/taking over time and help stakeholders prioritise conservation actions to address this international conservation problem. Large numbers of birds are also hunted legally in the region, but specific totals are generally unavailable. Such data, in combination with improved estimates for illegal killing/taking, are needed for robustly assessing the sustainability of exploitation of birds.
This study was designed to find out whether a person’s relationship with his voices and the negative affect he suffers from are mediated by beliefs about the voices. Research done to date shows contradictory results (Sorrell, Hayward, & Meddings, 2010, Vaughan & Fowler, 2004). A cross-sectional study was done to study the associations among variables, and a multiple mediation model (Preacher & Hayes, 2008) in which the beliefs about voices were the mediating variables was tested. Sixty subjects who heard voices participated. The VAY (Hayward, Denney, Vaughan, & Fowler, 2008), BAVQ (Chadwick & Birchwood, 1995), BAI (Beck & Steer, 1993) and BDI-II (Beck, Steer & Brown, 1996) were given. We found a significant positive correlation between perception of voices as dominant and intrusive and maintaining a position of distance from them on one hand, and negative affect [anxiety (r = .57, p < .001; r = .40, p < .001; r = .34, p < .01 respectively) and depression (r = .58, p < .001; r = .37, p < .01; r = .38, p < .001 respectively)] on the other. We also found that beliefs of malevolence and omnipotence mediated between relating style and negative affect (anxiety and depression). The theoretical implications of the results and clinical implications of the mediating relationships found are discussed.
Este libro reúne un número significativo de artículos suponen una aportación ciertamente notable a la bibliografía disponible hasta la fecha. Juan de Mena: de letrado a poeta recoge dieciséis trabajos en los que se estudia su figura y su obra desde perspectivas distintas pero complementarias que abren nuevas líneas de investigación o bien enriquecen otras ya existentes. El libro está estructurado en tres grandes bloques temáticos: El primero de ellos se dedica al contexto histórico de Juan de Mena. El segundo bloque gira en torno a la configuración del poeta, atendiendo a la conciencia autorial de Mena y a los recursos literarios que emplea. El tercer y último bloque está dedicado a la transformación del 'famosíssimo poeta Juan de Mena' en un clásico. Cristina Moya García es profesora en la Universidad de Córdoba. This book contains several studies reviewing the two facets of Juan de Mena's life as lawyer and poet. These contributions open up new lines of research on this important early-fifteenth-century Castilian writer and enrich some existing ones, studying Juan de Mena from different perspectives. The book is structured into three thematic blocks: The first is devoted to the historical context of Juan de Mena. The second section focuses on the configuration of the poet. The third and final part is dedicated to the transformation of "famosíssimo poeta Juan de Mena" into a classic author. Cristina Moya García is a profesor at the Universidad de Córdoba.Contributors: Federica Accorsi, Carlos Alvar, Linde M. Brocato, Daniel Capra, Juan Luis Carriazo Rubio, Antonio Cortijo, Sila Gómez Álvarez, Ángel Gómez Moreno, Daniel Hartnett, Julián Jiménez Heffernan, Maxim Kerkhof, Françoise Maurizi, Cristina Moya García, Francisco de Paula Cañas Gálvez, Pedro Ruiz Pérez.
A multidisciplinary study from a number of drilled cores in the Guadalquivir estuary has made possible to identify as many as three extreme wave events and their facies in the 4th millennium BP (A: ~ 4000 cal yr BP, B: ~ 3550 cal yr BP, and C: ~ 3150 cal yr BP). These events, which caused strong erosion in the Guadalquivir sandy barrier and in the neighboring aeolian systems of El Abalario, brought about significant paleogeographical changes that may have affected human settlements established in the area during the Neolithic and Copper Age periods and during the Middle Bronze Age. The three events can be spatially correlated and their facies differentiated from more proximal to more distal from the coastline. The most proximal facies is characterized by a massive accumulation of shells, a sandy or sandy–muddy matrix, an erosive base, a highly diverse mixture of species (marine and estuarine), and lithoclasts. The most distal facies presents a muddy–sandy matrix, dominance of estuarine fauna, shell accumulation, presence of terrestrial species, mudpebbles, pebbles in a clayey matrix, and bioturbation. The evidence presented will further advance scientific knowledge about the impact of extreme wave events on coastal areas in SW Iberia and NW Africa.
During the research programme conducted on the OV Puerto Deseado in the summers of 2011 and 2013, 36 stations were sampled using a demersal net at depths between 53–590 m in the Antarctic Peninsula and South Shetland Islands. A total 3378 fish specimens belonging to 36 species were recorded. Notothenidae was the best-represented family in species number, with Lepidonotothen nudifrons, L. larseni and Trematomus scotti being the most numerous species. Of the fish assemblages, 20% of the species were considered as dominant, 10% as common, 13% as occasional and 57% as rare. Six groups (and two sub-groups) were obtained by the ordination diagram based on geographical location: group 1=Gerlache Strait, group 2=Deception Islands, group 3=Biscoe Island, group 4=between Elephant and King George islands, group 5=northern Antarctic Peninsula, and group 6=South Shetland Islands, with sub-groups 6a shallower South Shetland Islands and 6b deeper South Shetland Islands. Sampling depth and water temperature significantly explained the spatial pattern. A latitudinal pattern of decreasing abundance from north-east to south-west was found in L. larseni and the opposite in T. scotti. The predictability of fish composition in the assemblages’ areas could be a useful tool for ecosystem-based management.
The aim of this study was to explore the association between pathological gambling (PG) and anger by assessing whether psychopathology and personality are related to PG and to evaluate gender differences. The sample comprised 71 PGs and 37 healthy controls. Anger, psychopathology and personality were assessed with the STAXI-2, SCL-90-R and TCI-R respectively. Gender did not affect anger expression after stratifying by diagnostic condition (p > .05). Among PG patients, anger, psychopathology and personality measures were correlated with good effect-size (r > .30). Scores in the Anger Temperament (B = 0.21, p = .038) and Anger External-Expression (B = 0.27, p = .029) scales were positively associated with PG severity scores. Anger expression in PG should be considered in future treatment programs.
The purpose of this work was to study the relationship between self-focused
attention and mindfulness in participants prone to hallucinations and others who
were not. A sample of 318 healthy participants, students at the universities of
Sevilla and Almería, was given the Launay-Slade Hallucinations
Scale-revised (LSHS-R, Bentall & Slade, 1985). Based on this sample, two groups were formed:
participants with high (n = 55) and low proneness
(n = 28) to hallucinations. Participants with a
score higher than a standard deviation from the mean in the LSHS-R were included
in the high proneness group, participants with a score lower than a standard
deviation from the mean in the LSHR-R were included in the second one. All
participants were also given the Self-Absorption Scale (SAS, McKenzie
& Hoyle, 2008) and the
Southampton Mindfulness Questionnaire (SMQ, Chadwick et al., 2008). The results showed that
participants with high hallucination proneness had significantly higher levels
of public (t(80) = 6.81, p
< .001) and private (t(77) = 7.39,
p < .001) self-focused attention and lower levels
of mindfulness (t(81) = -4.56, p
< .001) than participants in the group with low hallucination
proneness. A correlational analysis showed a negative association between
self-focused attention (private and public) and mindfulness (r
= -0.23, p < .001; r
= -0.38, p < .001 respectively). Finally,
mindfulness was found to partly mediate between self-focused attention and
hallucination proneness. The importance of self-focused attention and
mindfulness in understanding the etiology of hallucinations discussed and
suggest some approaches to their treatment.
Arid regions are increasingly being anthropogenically altered. In the north-western Sahara, a growing road network facilitates the use of habitats adjacent to roads. In regions where livestock is the traditional and main economic resource, local people are currently building numerous water cisterns for watering livestock, leading to an increase in the extent of pasturing of domestic livestock. Cisterns may attract desert vertebrates and act as death traps for species with already sparse populations in these arid areas. This paper is the first to examine the impact of cisterns as lethal traps for amphibians and reptiles in the Sahara, using a survey of 823 cisterns in south-western Morocco to identify and quantify species affected. Four amphibians and 35 reptiles were trapped in cisterns, some of which were listed as threatened. At least 459 017 individual amphibians and reptiles were trapped annually within the study area. The low productivity and low population densities of terrestrial vertebrates in this arid region suggest cisterns have a substantial impact upon amphibian and reptile species. As cistern construction is increasing, management actions are required to mitigate this impact on the herpetological community.