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Healthy lifestyle habits are the cornerstone in the management of familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH). Nevertheless, dietary studies on FH-affected populations are scarce. The present study analyses dietary habits, adherence to a Mediterranean diet pattern and physical activity in an adult population with FH and compares them with their non-affected relatives.
Data came from SAFEHEART, a nationwide study in Spain.
Individuals (n 3714) aged ≥18 years with a genetic diagnosis of FH (n2736) and their non-affected relatives (n 978). Food consumption was evaluated using a validated FFQ.
Total energy intake was lower in FH patients v. non-affected relatives (P<0·005). Percentage of energy from fats was also lower in the FH population (35 % in men, 36 % in women) v. those non-affected (38 % in both sexes, P<0·005), due to the lower consumption of saturated fats (12·1 % in FH patients, 13·2 % in non-affected, P<0·005). Consumption of sugars was lower in FH patients v. non-affected relatives (P<0·05). Consumption of vegetables, fish and skimmed milk was higher in the FH population (P<0·005). Patients with FH showed greater adherence to a Mediterranean diet pattern v. non-affected relatives (P<0·005). Active smoking was lower and moderate physical activity was higher in people with FH, especially women (P<0·005).
Adult patients with FH report healthier lifestyles than their non-affected family members. They eat a healthier diet, perform more physical activity and smoke less. However, this patient group’s consumption of saturated fats and sugars still exceeds guidelines.
Protected areas help to decrease human impacts on threatened mammals but do not always include species’ core habitats. Here we focus on the Vulnerable taruka Hippocamelus antisensis near the Atacama Desert, Chile, a population that is mainly threatened by interactions with local human communities. We develop a species distribution model for taruka and assess the contribution of protected areas to safeguarding its preferred habitat. From sightings (collected during 2004–2015), absence records (collected in 2014), and environmental variables, we determined that taruka habitat is scarce, highly fragmented and limited to humid areas. Only 7.7–11.2% of the taruka's core habitat is under protection. We recommend the establishment of a protected area in the south of Arica-Parinacota district, an area without settlements that lies within the taruka's core habitat, along with educational programmes, fencing of crops, and inclusion of communities in decision-making in areas where farmer–taruka interactions are negative.
We estimated visitors’ willingness to pay (WTP) for a variety of environmental attributes in a protected area of the Atacama Desert, a biodiversity hotspot in northern Chile. By using a choice experiment, WTP was estimated for the protection of the following attributes: animals (mammals, amphibians, reptiles and birds), pollinating insects, plants (cacti and woody shrubs), soil quality and pristine landscapes. Visitors placed economic value on all of the attributes. The marginal mean WTP/visitor for the single levels of variation in the attributes ranged from US$4 (for supporting research on foxes) to US$26 (for maintaining soil quality) per visitor per month. These results can contribute to deciding which attributes are likely to be successful at raising funds for conservation. Our approach may be relevant to protected areas of the world with high conservation values, little funding and a lack of large, charismatic species.
This paper presents and discusses several methods for predicting the low-frequency (LF) noise at the output of a mm-wave detector. These methods are based on the extraction of LF noise source parameters from the single diode under a specific set of bias conditions and the transfer or conversion of these noise sources, under different operating conditions including cyclostationary regime, to the quasi-dc output of a mm-wave detector constructed with the same model of diode. The noise analysis is based on a conversion-matrix type formulation, which relates the carrier noisy sidebands of the input signal with the detector output spectrum through a pair of transfer functions obtained in commercial software. Measurements of detectors in individual and differential setups will be presented and compared with predictions.
This work studies the nitridation of Ta by laser irradiation by means of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The study has been carried out under “in situ” conditions by controlling the nitrogen partial pressure, the presence of traces of oxygen, and the irradiance of the laser. It is found that a thin layer of Ta2O5 is directly obtained when irradiating in the presence of oxygen, while a Ta3N5 surface compound and some minor contributions of nonstoichiometric phases are formed in the presence of nitrogen. For O2:N2 mixtures at 0.1 Pa, preferential nitride formation occurs up to a ratio of 1:4, while Ta2O5 starts to be predominant for ratios above this value. The air stability of the tantalum nitride layer formed by laser irradiation and the surface topography of the irradiated metal are also studied. The possible factors determining this behavior are discussed.
The aim of this study is the analysis of different descriptors and reactions related to the experience of fatigue. Two groups were compared: a clinical sample (n = 92, 31 males, mean age = 38.87) and a non-clinical (n = 225, 135 males, mean age = 32.45) sample. The total sample was composed of 317 participants (52% males), ranging in age from 18 to 76 years. Findings show the experience of fatigue was mainly related to somatic terms (76% of the total sample). Specific results were found only for the clinical group: (a) significant relationships between fatigue and anxiety, χ2(1) = 34.71, p < .01; tension, χ2(1) = 16.80, p < .01; and sadness, χ2(1) = 24.59, p < .01; (b) higher intensity of fatigue (F = 84.15, p = .001), and predominance of the cognitive components of fatigue. Results showed that fatigue in subjects with a clinical disorder (versus those without) was associated both, to negative emotional states, and to a higher intensity of fatigue, especially in its cognitive elements. Important clinical implications for its assessment and intervention are discussed.
The Cuban Twin Registry is a nation-wide, prospective, population-based twin registry comprising all zygosity types and ages. It was initiated in 2004 to study genetic and environmental contributions to complex diseases with high morbidity and mortality in the Cuban population. The database contains extensive information from 55,400 twin pairs enrolled in the period 2004–2006. Additionally, 2,600 new multiple births have been included from 2007 to date. In the past 4 years, more than 130 studies have been carried out using the registry with a classical genetic epidemiological approach in which concordance rates for monozygotic and dizygotic twins and heritability of various disease traits were estimated. This article summarizes the history, registry's methodology, recent research findings, and future directions of work.
The main goal of this study is to analyze the degree to which several community elements such as insecurity, discrimination and informal community support might have an influence on the social integration of Latin-American immigrants, a group at risk of social exclusion in Spain. Multivariate linear regression analyses results showed that informal community support is positively related to social integration whereas insecurity is negatively related. The statistical relationship between discrimination and social integration disappears once levels of informal community support are taken into account. A better understanding of the factors that either promote or inhibit the social integration progress of immigrant population is important to orientate public policies and intervention programs that contribute to the adaptation of this population to the host society.
To assess the long-term relationship between tree nut consumption and the risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MetS).
Nut consumption was collected using a validated 136-item FFQ. The MetS was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation and American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute harmonizing definition. The association between nut consumption and MetS was assessed with logistic regression models adjusting for potential confounders. We compared the incidence of MetS between extreme categories of nut intake (≥2 servings/week v. never/almost never) after 6 years of follow-up.
The SUN Project (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra, University of Navarra Follow-up) is a prospective cohort study, formed of Spanish university graduates. Information is gathered by mailed questionnaires collected biennially. Nut consumption and MetS information was collected by self-reported data.
Participants (n 9887) initially free of MetS or diabetes and followed up for a minimum of 6 years were included.
We observed 567 new cases of MetS during follow-up. Participants who consumed nuts ≥2 servings/week presented a 32 % lower risk of developing MetS than those who never/almost never consumed (adjusted OR = 0·68, 95 % CI 0·50, 0·92). The inverse association was stronger among participants who were health professionals.
Nut consumption was significantly associated with lower risk of developing MetS after a 6-year follow-up period in a cohort of Spanish graduates.
Previous studies have indicated that supplementation with probiotic bacteria may improve lipid metabolism. The present study was aimed at investigating the effects of a mixture of three strains of Lactobacillus plantarum (CECT 7527, CECT 7528 and CECT 7529) on cholesterol-lowering efficacy in hypercholesterolaemic patients. A total of sixty volunteers (thirty participants in the placebo group and thirty counterparts in the L. plantarum group), aged 18–65 years old, participated in a controlled, randomised, double-blind trial. The study group received one capsule daily containing 1·2 × 109 colony-forming units of Lactobacillus strains in a unique dose; the placebo group consumed the same product without bacteria for 12 weeks. A significant reduction of 13·6 % in plasma total cholesterol (TC) levels was observed after 12 weeks of consumption in the L. plantarum group when compared with the placebo group. The lipidic outcomes were also analysed based on TC values at baseline: low initial values (LIV, 2000–2500 mg/l) v. high initial values (HIV, 2510–3000 mg/l). In the HIV group, the L. plantarum treatment showed a reduction after 12 weeks of consumption compared with the placebo group in TC, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and oxidised LDL-C (17·4, 17·6 and 15·6 %, respectively). In the LIV, the L. plantarum treatment only showed a reduction after 12 weeks of consumption when compared with the placebo group in TC (9·4 %). The present results showed that the biofunctionality of L. plantarum (CECT 7527, CECT 7528 and CECT 7529) is proportional to the cardiovascular risk of the patient, having a better effect in patients with higher levels of cholesterol.
Farmers around the world are concerned about the effects of human-induced salinity on crop yield and quality. Therefore, researchers are actively testing wild relatives of cultivated plants to identify candidates to improve crop performance under salt stress. A study was conducted to understand the effects of salt stress (Sodium chloride, NaCl) on cultivated tomato species (Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme L.) and a wild tomato relative (Solanum chilense Dun.) from the Northern part of Chile. Plants were cultivated hydroponically under controlled environmental conditions for 112 days with nutrient solution containing 0 mM (3 dS m−1), 40 mM (6 dS m−1) and 80-mM (9 dS m−1) NaCl. Salt stress reduced the shoot biomass in S. lycopersicum but not in S. chilense. Both species were able to maintain the leaf water content; however, the cultivated S. lycopersicum showed osmotic adjustment, while S. chilense did not. Salt stress reduced the total fruit yield in S. lycopersicum based on a decrease in the mean fruit weight, but it had no impact on the number of fruits per plant. In contrast, salt stress had no significant impact on the fruit yield in S. chilense. Salt stress increased the total soluble solids content in S. lycopersicum and the titratable acidity in S. chilense. It was concluded that S. chilense displays a contrasting behaviour in response to prolonged exposure to moderate salinity compared with S. lycopersicum, and that this related species could be an interesting plant for breeding purposes.
In 1999, Wilkinson and the Task Force on Statistical Inference published “Statistical Methods and Psychology: Guidelines and Explanation.” The authors made several recommendations about how to improve the quality of Psychology research papers. One of these was to report some effect-size index in the results of the research. In 2001, the fifth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association included this recommendation. In Spain, in 2003, scientific journals like Psicothema or the International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology (IJCHP) published editorials and papers expressing the need to calculate the effect size in the research papers. The aim of this study is to determine whether the papers published from 2003 to 2008 in the four Spanish journals indexed in the Journal Citation Reports have reported some effect-size index of their results. The findings indicate that, in general, the follow-up of the norm has been scanty, though the evolution over the analyzed period is different depending on the journal.
Atomic defects, in the form of dislocation configurations, are identified following nanoindentation of Au(001) surfaces. Combined STM, dislocation theory and atomistic simulations fully characterise these defects and describe their motion. By comparing with AFM data the emission of those defects are correlated with the incipient stages of plasticity, the latter recognised from force vs penetration curves. The size distribution, the spatial pattern and the motion of these dislocations under stress have also been investigated and explained in terms of the theory of dislocations in a continuum.
PbZr0.53Ti0.4703 doped with 0.6% at. of Gd2O3 has been produced following the traditional solid state reaction technique. The ferro-paraelectric transition temperature is reduced from 386 °C to 352 °C. Remnant polarization and coercive field measurements were made from the hysteresis loops obtained at 23 °C and at different applied electric fields up to a maximum of 17 kV/cm. Piezoelectric performance was studied in the 4 Hz to 4 MHz frequency range at 25 °C and the radial electromechanical coupling factor was determined. A detailed electrical conductivity study in the 30-450 °C temperature range is performed in a wide frequency interval. The different participating transport mechanisms are elucidated and the corresponding activation energies were determined by fitting the experimental data. In particular, in the 30 to 300 °C temperature interval, the ac conductivity follows Jonscher universal relaxation law.
Microwave driven discharges are finding increasing use in semiconductor areas such as deposition, etching, cleaning and ashing. One application that is of particular interest is the use of microwave discharge grown thin film diamond as a x-ray mask. Because of diamonds extreme properties these masks offer potential advantages over current silicon based mask technology. A review of diamond mask technology will be presented and compared to competing technologies.
We present evidence for the operation on reconstructed Au(001) of a novel mechanism, involving dislocation motion, which is much more efficient than surface diffusion to redistribute mass around nanoindentations. Cross-slip of individual dislocations generated around the indentation point, with a screw component perpendicular to the surface, is shown to be responsible for the generation of multiple-storied, crystallographically-oriented terraces around the nanoindentation points. We also show that standard dislocation theory can be used to quantitatively describe the characteristics of the dislocations involved in the different processes around the nanoindentation.
Crabs from the Mithrax–Mithraculus species complex are known for their diversity of lifestyles, habitats, and coloration. This group includes small, colourful, symbiotic species and much larger, reef-dwelling crabs targeted by fishermen. The evolutionary relationships between the species within this complex are not well-defined. Previous studies based upon morphological characters have proposed the separation of this complex into two genera (Mithrax and Mithraculus), but cladistic analyses based upon larval characters do not support this division. A molecular phylogeny of the group may help to resolve this long-standing taxonomic question and shed light on the ecological conditions driving the diversity of these crabs. Using a 550-bp alignment of the 16S rRNA mitochondrial DNA segment we examined the phylogenetic relationships between 8 species within the Mithrax–Mithraculus complex native to the Caribbean. The resulting phylogeny indicates that this complex is paraphyletic, as it includes the genus Microphrys. The analyses revealed a well-supported, monophyletic group containing four species of Mithraculus (M. cinctimanus, M. coryphe, M. sculptus and M. forceps) and supported one pair of sister species from the genus Mithrax (M. caribbaeus and M. spinosissimus). No complete segregation of species, according to genera, was evident, however, from tree topologies. Bayesian-factor analyses revealed strong support for the unconstrained tree instead of alternative trees in which monophyly of the two genera was forced. Thus, the present molecular phylogeny does not support the separation of the species within this complex into the genera Mithrax and Mithraculus. A review of the literature demonstrated considerable phenotypic variation within monophyletic clades in this group.