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The maternal brain undergoes adaptations to sensitive caregiving that are critical for infant well-being. We investigated structural alterations associated with neglectful caregiving and their effects on mother–child interactive behavior. High-resolution 3D volumetric images were obtained on 25 neglectful (NM) and 23 non-neglectful control (CM) mothers. Using voxel-based morphometry, we compared differences in gray and white matter (GM and WM, respectively) volume. Mothers completed an empathy scale and participated with their children in a play task (Emotional Availability Scale, EA). Neglectful mothers showed smaller GM volume in the right insula, anterior/middle cingulate (ACC/MCC), and right inferior frontal gyrus and less WM volume in bilateral frontal regions than did CM. A greater GM volume was observed in the right fusiform and cerebellum in NM than in CM. Regression analyses showed a negative effect of greater fusiform GM volume and a positive effect of greater right frontal WM volume on EA. Mediation analyses showed the role of emotional empathy in the positive effect of the insula and right inferior frontal gyrus and in the negative effect of the cerebellum on EA. Neglectful mothering involves alterations in emotional empathy-related areas and in frontal areas associated with poor mother–child interactive bonding, indicating how critical these areas are for sensitive caregiving.
The Astroinformatics Program is funded by the Chilean Economy Ministry’s (FIE Grant FIE-2016-V022, CORFO Grant 16IFI6626) with the mission to identify and initiate investments to foster Chilean Digital Economy, using Astronomy data-centric tools (known as astroinformatics). Over 2017 we worked with communities across sectors identifying opportunities to achieve the program mission, the Data Observatory vision emerged from that work and will guide design activities throughout 2018.
To analyze the impact of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) Multidimensional Approach (IMA) and the INICC Surveillance Online System (ISOS) on central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) rates in 14 intensive care units (ICUs) in Argentina from January 2014 to April 2017.
This prospective, pre–post surveillance study of 3,940 ICU patients was conducted in 11 hospitals in 5 cities in Argentina. During our baseline evaluation, we performed outcome and process surveillance of CLABSI applying Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Health Safety Network (CDC/NHSN) definitions. During the intervention, we implemented the IMA through ISOS: (1) a bundle of infection prevention practice interventions, (2) education, (3) outcome surveillance, (4) process surveillance, (5) feedback on CLABSI rates and consequences, and (6) performance feedback of process surveillance. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed using a logistic regression model to estimate the effect of the intervention on the CLABSI rate.
During the baseline period, 5,118 CL days and 49 CLABSIs were recorded, for a rate of 9.6 CLABSIs per 1,000 central-line (CL) days. During the intervention, 15,659 CL days and 68 CLABSIs were recorded, for a rate of 4.1 CLABSIs per 1,000 CL days. The CLABSI rate was reduced by 57% (incidence density rate: 0.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.34–0.6; P<.001).
Implementing IMA through ISOS was associated with a significant reduction in the CLABSI rate in ICUs in Argentina.
Species composition of wild reservoir hosts can influence the transmission and maintenance of multi-host vector borne pathogens. The ‘pace of life’ hypothesis proposes that the life history strategy of reservoir hosts can influence pathogen transmission of vector borne generalist pathogens. We use empirical data to parameterize a mathematical model that investigates the impacts of host life history traits on vector transmission dynamics of the vector-borne multi-host parasite Trypanosoma cruzi in habitats characterized by different degrees of deforestation and varying host community structure. The model considers susceptible and infected vector and host populations. When comparing the proportion of vectors infected with T. cruzi predicted by the model with empirical data, we found a trend of increasing vector infection as anthropogenic landscape disturbance increases for both data and model output. The model's vector infection rates were significantly lower than empirical results, but when incorporating host congenital transmission in the model, vector infection approaches field data. We conclude that intervened habitats associated with r-selected host species communities predict higher proportions of infected vectors.
We present the first study of the spatial and temporal dynamics of raptors and large soaring birds from the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Mexico. Using systematic migration counts from multiple localities in the southern states of Oaxaca and Chiapas, as well as observations of their flight trajectories during eight consecutive years (2007–2014), we describe the magnitude of these movements, their geographic extent, and the phenology of the most abundant species in both spring and fall seasons. The most abundant species were Turkey Vulture Cathartes aura, Swainson’s Hawk Buteo swainsoni, Broad-winged Hawk Buteo platypterus, Wood Stork Mycteria americana, American White Pelican Pelecanus erythrothynchos, Franklin’s Gull Leucophaeus pipixcan, and American Kestrel Falco sparverius. In spring, the seasonal average magnitude of migration was over 28,000 birds, while in autumn the average was over one million. The aggregated seasonal phenologies recorded illustrate a variety of migration patterns. The inter-annual variation is lower in autumn than in spring. Migrating raptors and other soaring birds did not seem to use any topographical feature as a leading line for their movements in spring, while in autumn they did. We estimated the main axis of spring flights to run along a SE–NW vector, while autumn migration follows a WNW–ESE general trajectory. Our results place the isthmus as one of the five most important sites in the world for raptors and soaring migrants. Sustaining annual migration counts at these sites is of high importance to track substantial portions (> 90%) of the global population of Turkey Vulture and Swainson’s Hawk, as well as over 10% of the global population of Broad-winged Hawk. Autumn migration counts have the potential for long-term population monitoring.
We say that a Banach space
is ‘nice’ if every extreme operator from any Banach space into
is a nice operator (that is, its adjoint preserves extreme points). We prove that if
is a nice almost
is isometrically isomorphic to
for some set
. We also show that if
is a nice Banach space whose closed unit ball has the Krein–Milman property, then
. The proof of our results relies on the structure topology.
In this study, the aim was to analyze the relative importance of Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality facets for eudaimonic or psychological well-being (PWB) and hedonic or subjective well-being (SWB) through dominance analyses. The participants were 1,403 adult residents of Spain (mean age 37.2 years, SD = 13.9). As expected, facets captured a substantial proportion of the variance in PWB and SWB, with PWB being better predicted than SWB (explaining around 36–55% of the variance of PWB vs. 25% of the variance of SWB). Some facets were common to both types of well-being such as depression (explaining between 5–33% of the variance), vulnerability (explaining between 4–21% of the variance), positive emotions (explaining between 2-9% of the variance) and achievement striving (explaining between 2–10% of the variance), whereas others made a unique contribution according to type of well-being. Certain facets had a greater relative importance for women’s well-being -e.g., positive emotions explained 9% of the variance of self-acceptance for women vs. 3% for men- and others for men’s well-being -e.g., achievement striving explained 9% of the variance of personal growth for men vs. 2% for women-. The present results contribute to the literature by identifying which Big Five facets showed greater relative importance in explaining and distinguishing between PWB and SWB for women and men.
A number of studies have pointed out that stuttering-like disfluencies could be the result of failures in central and linguistic processing. The goal of the present paper is to analyze if stuttering implies deficits in the lexical and phonological processing in visual word recognition. This study compares the performance of 28 children with and without stuttering in a standard lexical decision task in a transparent orthography: Spanish. Word frequency and syllable frequency were manipulated in the experimental words. Stutterers were found to be considerably slower (in their correct responses) and produced more errors than the non- stutterers (χ(1) = 36.63, p < .001, η2 = .60). There was also a facilitation effect of syllable frequency, restricted to low frequency words and only in the stutterers group (t1(10) = 3.67, p < .005; t2(36) = 3.10, p < .001). These outcomes appear to suggest that the decoding process of stutterers exhibits a deficit in the interface between the phonological-syllabic level and the word level.
This study recruited 90 traumatic brain injury (TBI) caregivers from Guadalajara, Mexico to examine influences of five domains of TBI impairment and related caregiver stress on five types of family needs. Canonical correlations suggested that greater social impairment in individuals with TBI and related caregiver stress were associated with higher informational, household and health needs in families. Meanwhile greater physical impairments in individuals with TBI and related caregiver stress were associated with higher household needs. Additionally, greater emotional impairments in individuals with TBI and related caregiver stress were associated with higher informational needs. Caregiver interventions targeting specific TBI impairments and related caregiver stress may meet family needs and thereby improve the quality of informal care for their family members with TBI.
The Next Generation Transit Survey (NGTS) is a new ground-based survey for transiting exoplanets. Our primary goal is to find the first statistically-significant sample of Neptunes and super-Earths that are bright enough for radial velocity confirmation. By measuring precise masses and radii we will constrain the bulk composition and internal structure of planets that span the transition between the gas giants and terrestrial planets. Our brightest exoplanets will also be suitable for atmospheric characterisation with large facilities such as the VLT, JWST and the E-ELT. NGTS construction began in June 2013, and the survey is due to commence in 2014.
The Cuban Twin Registry is a nation-wide, prospective, population-based twin registry comprising all zygosity types and ages. It was initiated in 2004 to study genetic and environmental contributions to complex diseases with high morbidity and mortality in the Cuban population. The database contains extensive information from 55,400 twin pairs enrolled in the period 2004–2006. Additionally, 2,600 new multiple births have been included from 2007 to date. In the past 4 years, more than 130 studies have been carried out using the registry with a classical genetic epidemiological approach in which concordance rates for monozygotic and dizygotic twins and heritability of various disease traits were estimated. This article summarizes the history, registry's methodology, recent research findings, and future directions of work.
We have recently reported that xanthine oxidase is involved in the generation of free radicals in exhaustive exercise. Allopurinol, an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase, prevents it. The aim of the present work was to elucidate the role of exercise-derived reactive oxygen species in the cell signalling pathways involved in the adaptation to exercise in man. We have found that exercise causes an increase in the activity of plasma xanthine oxidase and an activation of NF-κB in peripheral blood lymphocytes after marathon running. This activation is dependent on free radical formation in exercise: treatment with allopurinol completely prevents it. In animal models, we previously showed that NF-κB activation induced by exhaustive physical exercise leads to an increase in the expression of superoxide dismutase, an enzyme involved in antioxidant defence. We report evidence in man that reactive oxygen species act as signals in exercise as decreasing their formation prevents activation of important signalling pathways which can cause useful adaptations in cells.
Introduction. A study was done to compare Gruesa, a local dwarf Cavendish selection, with two other cultivars of the Cavendish subgroup in the open air or under greenhouse conditions in two localities of the Canary Islands. Materials and methods. The trials were set up with the cultivars Zelig, Grande Naine and Gruesa in four plots on the northern slope: one outdoors and three under three different greenhouse covers (one with polyethylene lamina and the other two with different types of mesh), and in one outdoor plot on the southern slope of the island of Tenerife. Morphological, phenological and production characteristics were studied over three productive cycles. Results. Significant differences were found in both plant height (Grande Naine > Zelig > Gruesa) and pseudostem thickness (Gruesa > Grande Naine = Zelig). Each cultivar showed a stable [height:thickness] ratio, remaining the same in all trial conditions. Gruesa cycle length was longer than those of the other two cultivars, emitting more leaves until bunch emergency. Gruesa produced the most hands per bunch and the most fingers per hand. In all cultivars, finger length was directly related to pseudostem height. All three cultivars produced well, with fruits very similar in organoleptic traits. A reduction in cycle length and a slight increase in productivity were observed in the northern plot under the polyethylene cover compared with the plots under other covers and outdoors. Conclusion. Gruesa appears more recommendable than Zelig and Grande Naine for open-air plantations in windy localities.