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To evaluate the quality and content of free smoking cessation apps and assess their adherence to the US Public Health Service guideline for treating tobacco use and dependence.
In total 180 apps were downloaded from the App Store and Google Play Store in January 2018; the top-ranking 30 apps were retrieved for the search terms: ‘smoking cessation’, ‘quit smoking’, ‘stop smoking’. Technical quality was rated using the Mobile Application Rating Scale (MARS) and by assessing other characteristics, behavioral change strategies and adherence to the 5As.
A total 67 free-to-download apps were identified for full review (n = 40 from the Apple App Store and n = 27 from the Google Play Store). The average MARS score was 16.2/19.0: Engagement (3.3/5.0), Functionality (4.4/5.0), Aesthetics (4.0/5.0), and Information (2.6/5.0). Overall, 43 apps allowed sharing, 12 allowed for an app community, and five required a password. The following features were observed: assessment (n = 51), feedback (n = 38), information/education (n = 45), monitoring (n = 52), and goal setting (n = 23). Significant differences were found among apps adhering to the 5As: Ask (n = 44), Advise (n = 54), Assess (n = 30), Assist (n = 62), and Arrange (n = 0).
Given the growth in smoking cessation apps, future efforts should focus on improving their technical quality and adherence to the 5As.
Visual hallucination (VH) is a common psychotic symptom in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and may be a significant predictor of cognitive impairment (CI) in such patients.
This study aimed to investigate the pattern of glucose metabolism of VH and the relationship between VH and CI in PD.
We studied 28 PD patients, including 15 with VH (PD-VH) and 13 without VH (PD-NVH). Of the 15 PD-VH patients, 8 patients had cognitive impairment (PD-VHCI) whereas 7 did not (PD-VHNCI). All patients underwent [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ([18F] FDG PET) followed by statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analyses.
Compared to the patients with PDNVH, PD-VHNCI patients showed glucose hypometabolism in the inferior and middle temporal cortices, fusiform gyri, and frontal areas, suggesting the involvement of the ventral visual pathway. Compared to the patients with PDNVH, PD-VHCI patients showed glucose hypometabolism in the temporoparietal association cortices with scattered frontal areas.
Dysfunction of ventral visual pathway involving the temporal lobe may play a key role in VH development in PD patients. The evolving distribution from the ventral visual pathway to more extensive posterior cortices in PD-VHCI patients suggests that VH may be a prodromal symptom occurring prior to CI in PD patients.
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