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Screening for depression in older adults is recommended.
To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the Two-Question Screen for older adults and compare it with other screening instruments for depression.
We undertook a literature search for studies assessing the diagnostic performance of depression screening instruments in older adults. Combined diagnostic accuracy including sensitivity and specificity were the primary outcomes. Potential risks of bias and the quality of studies were also assessed.
A total of 46506 participants from 132 studies were identified evaluating 16 screening instruments. The majority of studies (63/132) used various versions of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and 6 used the Two-Question Screen. The combined sensitivity and specificity for the Two-Question Screen were 91.8% (95% CI 85.2–95.6) and 67.7% (95% CI 58.1–76.0), respectively; the diagnostic performance area under the curve (AUC) was 90%. The Two-Question Screen showed comparable performance with other instruments, including clinician-rated scales. The One-Question Screen showed the lowest diagnostic performance with an AUC of 78%. In subgroup analysis, the Two-Question Screen also had good diagnostic performance in screening for major depressive disorder.
The Two-Question Screen is a simple and short instrument for depression screening. Its diagnostic performance is comparable with other instruments and, therefore, it would be favourable to use it for older adult screening programmes.
To examine potential clinical outcomes and cost of active methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) surveillance with and without decolonization in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) from the perspective of healthcare providers in Hong Kong.
Decision analysis modeling.
Hypothetical cohort of patients admitted to an NICU.
We designed a decision tree to simulate potential outcomes of active MRSA surveillance with and without decolonization in patients admitted to an NICU. Outcome measures included total direct medical cost per patient, MRSA infection rate, and MRSA-associated mortality rate. Model inputs were derived from the literature. Sensitivity analyses evaluated the impact of uncertainty in all model variables.
In the base-case analysis, active surveillance plus decolonization showed a lower expected MRSA infection rate (0.911% vs 1.759%), MRSA-associated mortality rate (0.223% vs 0.431%), and total cost per patient (USD 47,294 vs USD 48,031) compared with active surveillance alone. Sensitivity analyses showed that active surveillance plus decolonization cost less and had lower event rates if the incidence risk ratio of acquiring MRSA infections in carriers after decolonization was less than 0.997. In 10,000 Monte Carlo simulations, active surveillance plus decolonization was significantly less costly than active surveillance alone 99.9% of the time, and both the MRSA infection rate and the MRSA-associated mortality rate were significantly lower 99.9% of the time.
Active surveillance plus decolonization for patients admitted to NICUs appears to be cost saving and effective in reducing the MRSA infection rate and the MRSA-associated mortality rate if addition of decolonization to active surveillance reduces the risk of MRSA infection.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2012;33(10):1024-1030
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