Knowledge of parental state of mind with respect to parent-child attachment relationships may provide insight into etiology or maintenance of problematic parent-child interactions and development of child psychopathology. Forty-nine mothers and their behaviorally disturbed children, aged 5 to 11 years, were assessed in a child psychiatry clinic. Mothers and children were observed in a semistructured interaction consisting of free play, three tasks, separation, and reunion. Mothers were scored on supportiveness, helpfulness, organization, and so forth. Children were rated on relationship behaviors with mother, task behaviors, activity level, and so forth. Parents and teachers completed rating scales of child aggression and oppositionality, inattention and hyperactivity, and competence. Children rated themselves on feelings of depression and anxiety. Mothers were given the Adult Attachment Interview (George, Kaplan, & Main, 1985) and were classified as secure, dismissing, or preoccupied in state of mind with respect to attachment. Mothers classified as secure were supportive and well organized with their children. Mothers classified as insecure were unsupportive and cool. The secure classification was associated with the children reporting low levels of anxiety and depression, being described as competent and relatively low in symptomatology. The dismissing classification was associated with oppositional and aggressive symptoms in the children, greater symptomatology overall, and child self-reports of distress. Maternal attachment classification appears to contribute to understanding of the development of psychopathology in children and its type and severity.