To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Russian thistle, also known as tumbleweed (Salsola spp.), is a problematic invasive plant found on natural and working landscapes. On a California rangeland, we tested the singular and interactive treatments of grazing, herbicide, and seeding to determine how these approaches might influence Salsola cover across a 5-yr experiment. Total Salsola cover declined by 3% annually during the study. A single spring treatment of chlorsulfuron + 2,4-D followed by glyphosate applied in the fall just before seeding, and then 2,4-D the following spring, significantly reduced Salsola cover compared with the untreated control. Seeded forage species cover increased over time and was significantly higher than seeded native species cover at 5 yr after seeding. However, the seeding treatment had no effect on Salsola cover. Although grazing did not reduce Salsola cover, due to the beneficial effects of grazing on reducing other nonnative species, this study supports the use of an integrated approach of herbicide application, grazing, and seeding to achieve management goals on an arid working landscape.
Exotic annual grasses such as medusahead [Taeniatherum caput-medusae (L.) Nevski] and downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.) dominate millions of hectares of grasslands in the western United States. Applying picloram, aminopyralid, and other growth regulator herbicides at late growth stages reduces seed production of most exotic annual grasses. In this study, we applied aminopyralid to T. caput-medusae to determine how reducing seed production in the current growing season influenced cover in the subsequent growing season. At eight annual grassland sites, we applied aminopyralid at 55, 123, and 245 g ae ha−1 in spring just before T. caput-medusae heading. The two higher rates were also applied pre-emergence (PRE) in fall to allow comparisons with this previously tested timing. When applied in spring during the roughly 10-d period between the flag leaf and inflorescence first becoming visible, just 55 g ae ha−1 of aminopyralid greatly limited seed production and subsequently reduced T. caput-medusae cover to nearly zero. Fall aminopyralid applications were less effective against T. caput-medusae, even at a rate of 245 g ae ha−1. The growing season of application, fall treatments, but not spring treatments, sometimes reduced cover of desirable winter annual forage grasses. The growing season after application, both spring and fall treatments tended to increase forage grasses, though spring treatments generally caused larger increases. Compared with other herbicide treatment options, preheading aminopyralid treatments are a relatively inexpensive, effective approach for controlling T. caput-medusae and increasing forage production.
In this chapter, the problems associated with the individualisation of people depicted in photographic forensic evidence such as closed circuit television (CCTV) images are described. Evidence of this type may be presented in court and, even with high-quality images, human identification of unfamiliar faces has been shown to be unreliable. Therefore, facial image comparison or mapping techniques have been developed. These have been used by expert witnesses providing opinion testimony as to whether two images depict the same person or not. With photographic video superimposition, one image is superimposed over a second so that a series of visual tests can detect differences or similarities in facial features. With morphological comparison analysis facial features are classified into discrete categories, providing an indication of whether these are similar across images. Finally, with photo-anthropometry the proportional distances and sometimes the angles between facial landmarks are calculated and compared. Recent research using each technique is described, and the difficulties associated with their application in forensic settings evaluated. At present, no method provides certainty of identification and great care should be taken if presented in court to obtain a conviction without substantiating alternative evidence.
Government and private sector investment in crime prevention initiatives has made CCTV systems common in many urban areas. Although there are no official records, the UK probably has the highest density in the world, with at least 3 million cameras nationwide (McCahill and Norris, 2003; Norris et al., 2004). There may be as many as 26 million cameras in the USA (Washington Post, 8 October 2005) and large-scale implementation seems inevitable elsewhere (Norris et al., 2004). Widespread deployment of CCTV raises many issues. Concerns have been raised about infringement of rights to privacy (Norris and Armstrong, 1999; Introna and Wood, 2004) and crime prevention efficacy (Brown, 1995; Gill et al., 2005). In this chapter, we focus on the reliability of CCTV for identification purposes.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.