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The pandemic of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) was primarily due to clonal spread of blaKPC producing Klebsiella pneumoniae. Thus, thoroughly studied CRE cohorts have consisted mostly of K. pneumoniae.
To conduct an extensive epidemiologic analysis of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacter spp. (CREn) from 2 endemic and geographically distinct centers.
CREn were investigated at an Israeli center (Assaf Harofeh Medical Center, January 2007 to July 2012) and at a US center (Detroit Medical Center, September 2008 to September 2009). blaKPC genes were queried by polymerase chain reaction. Repetitive extragenic palindromic polymerase chain reaction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis were used to determine genetic relatedness.
In this analysis, 68 unique patients with CREn were enrolled. Sixteen isolates (24%) were from wounds, and 33 (48%) represented colonization only. All isolates exhibited a positive Modified Hodge Test, but only 93% (27 of 29) contained blaKPC. Forty-three isolates (63%) were from elderly adults, and 5 (7.4%) were from neonates. Twenty-seven patients died in hospital (40.3% of infected patients). Enterobacter strains consisted of 4 separate clones from Assaf Harofeh Medical Center and of 4 distinct clones from Detroit Medical Center.
In this study conducted at 2 distinct CRE endemic regions, there were unique epidemiologic features to CREn: (i) polyclonality, (ii) neonates accounting for more than 7% of cohort, and (iii) high rate of colonization (almost one-half of all cases represented colonization). Since false-positive Modified Hodge Tests in Enterobacter spp. are common, close monitoring of carbapenem resistance mechanisms (particularly carbapenemase production) among Enterobacter spp. is important.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(11):1283–1291
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are clinically challenging, threaten patient safety, and represent an emerging public health issue. CRE reporting is not mandated in Michigan.
The Michigan Department of Community Health–led CRE Surveillance and Prevention Initiative enrolled 21 facilities (17 acute care and 4 long-term acute care facilities) across the state. Baseline data collection began September 1, 2012, and ended February 28, 2013 (duration, 6 months). Enrolled facilities voluntarily reported cases of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli according to the surveillance algorithm. Patient demographic characteristics, laboratory testing, microbiology, clinical, and antimicrobial information were captured via standardized data collection forms. Facilities reported admissions and patient-days each month.
One-hundred two cases over 957,220 patient-days were reported, resulting in a crude incidence rate of 1.07 cases per 10,000 patient-days. Eighty-nine case patients had test results positive for K. pneumoniae, whereas 13 had results positive for E. coli. CRE case patients had a mean age of 63 years, and 51% were male. Urine cultures (61%) were the most frequently reported specimen source. Thirty-five percent of cases were hospital onset; sixty-five percent were community onset (CO), although 75% of CO case patients reported healthcare exposure within the previous 90 days. Cardiovascular disease, renal failure, and diabetes mellitus were the most frequently reported comorbid conditions. Common ris k factors included surgery within the previous 90 days, recent infection or colonization with a multidrug-resistant organism, and recent exposures to antimicrobials, especially third- or fourth-generation cephalosporins.
CRE are found throughout Michigan healthcare facilities. Implementing a regional, coordinated surveillance and prevention initiative may prevent CRE from becoming hyperendemic in Michigan.
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