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Reports in the literature of treatment with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator following cardiac surgery are limited. We reviewed our experience to provide a case series of the therapeutic use of tissue plasminogen activator for the treatment of venous thrombosis in children after cardiac surgery. The data describe the morbidity, mortality, and clinical outcomes of tissue plasminogen activator administration for treatment of venous thrombosis in children following cardiac surgery.
The study was designed as a retrospective case series.
The study was carried out in a 25-bed cardiac intensive care unit in an academic, free-standing paediatric hospital.
All children who received tissue plasminogen activator for venous thrombosis within 60 days of cardiac surgery, a total of 13 patients, were included.
Data was collected, collated, and analysed as a part of the interventions of this study.
Measurements and main results
Patients treated with tissue plasminogen activator were principally young infants (median 0.2, IQR 0.07–0.58 years) who had recently (22, IQR 12.5–27.3 days) undergone cardiac surgery. Hospital mortality was high in this patient group (38%), but there was no mortality attributable to tissue plasminogen activator administration, occurring within <72 hours. There was one major haemorrhagic complication that may be attributable to tissue plasminogen activator. Complete or partial resolution of venous thrombosis was confirmed using imaging in 10 of 13 patients (77%), and tissue plasminogen activator administration was associated with resolution of chylous drainage, with no drainage through chest tubes, at 10 days after tissue plasminogen activator treatment in seven of nine patients who had upper-compartment venous thrombosis-associated chylothorax.
On the basis of our experience with administration of tissue plasminogen activator in children after cardiac surgery, tissue plasminogen activator is both safe and effective for resolution of venous thrombosis in this high-risk population.
Introduction: This 52-week open-label extension (OLE) to a double-blind placebo-controlled recurrence prevention study examined the long-term safety and efficacy of flexibly-dosed paliperidone extended-release (ER) tablets in patients with schizophrenia.
Methods: Patients entering the OLE either entered from the double-blind phase (placebo or paliperidone ER treatment) or entered directly from the run-in or stabilization phase (paliperidone ER) of the earlier study. During the OLE, patients were treated with flexibly-dosed paliperidone ER (3–15 mg/day; 9 mg starting dose). Safety and tolerability assessments included incidence of adverse events and extrapyramidal symptoms. Efficacy was also assessed.
Results: The study population (n=235) was predominantly men (66%), 18–58 years of age. Twelve patients (5%) experienced an adverse event requiring treatment discontinuation. One or more serious treatment-emergent adverse events were reported in 13 patients (6%). There was one death. The mean Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score decreased from open-label baseline to endpoint for all groups, regardless of previous double-blind treatment (placebo or paliperidone ER).
Conclusion: This year-long OLE provides information on the long-term safety and tolerability of paliperidone ER in patients with schizophrenia. The resulting safety and tolerability profile was similar to that seen in earlier short-term studies.
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